Учебно-методический комплекс: английский язык для специальности «стилистика и искусство визажа»



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12.Типы вопросов.
При образовании общих вопросов вспомогательный / модальный глагол выносится перед подлежащим.

Порядок слов в общем вопросе: вспомогательный / модальный глагол + подлежащее+ глагол + второстепенные члены предложения.


does she speak English well? Can he dance? Did you play tennis?
Специальные вопросы.
Специальные вопросы начинаются с вопросительного местоимения (who, what, where, why, when, whose, which, how и т.д.)
Порядок слов в специальном вопросе : вопросительное слово + вспомогательный / модальный глагол + подлежащее+ глагол + второстепенные члены предложения.
where were you yesterday ?

What do you want?


Предлоги в специальных вопросах обычно ставятся в конец предложения,хотя в формальном стиле они обычно ставятся перед вопросительным местоимением.
Who is she playing with ?

Exercise 1
Form the general questions.

Example: My brother likes skating. Does my brother like skating?

1.He translates a lot of letters into English. 2.1 had an early morning call at seven o'clock. 3. Little children like to ask many questions. 4. Their classes will last till four o'clock tomorrow. 5. I've already done this task. 6. She spends a lot of time on her English. 7. My children are at college. 8. They had supper at 7 o'clock. 9.1 am going to play tennis in the evening. 10. They were writing when I came. 11. She can play the guitar very well. 12. There are many people in the library now. 13. Brazil won the football World Cup in 1994. 14. He has already read a lot of English books. 15. They have classes at 9 every day.



Exercise 2
Write the questions
Mary grows beautiful flowers in the garden. (Мэри выращивает красивые цветы в саду.) – Does Mary grow flowers in the garden? (Мэри выращивает цветы в саду?)

The weather is cold today. (Сегодня холодная погода.) – Is the weather cold today? (Погода холодная сегодня?)



  1. John was tired after work. (Джон устал после работы.)

  2. We live in a small town. (Мы живем в маленьком городке.)

  3. Summer has started at last. (Лето началось, наконец-то.)

  4. They have already left. (Ониужеушли.)

  5. My parents got married in Paris. (Мои родители поженились в Париже.)

  6. She can lose her temper easily. (Она может легко выйти из себя.)

  7. The party will start in time. (Вечеринканачнетсявовремя.)

  8. The dogs are sleeping. (Собакиспят.)

  9. The umbrella was broken. (Зонтбылсломан.)

  10. He always gives money to homeless children. (Он всегда дает деньги беспризорным детям.)



Exercise 3

Translate the sentences into English
1.Как вас зовут? 2. Сколько вам лет? 3. Вы замужем (женаты)? 4. Вы женаты или холосты? 5. Откуда вы? 6. Какой ваш адрес? 7. Какой номер вашего мобильного телефона? 8. Вы студент, не правда ли? 9. Вы студент первого или второго курса? 10. Какие ваши любимые предметы? 11. В каких предметах вы хорошо разбираетесь (to be good at)? 12. Вам нравится английский язык, не правда ли (to be fond of)? 13. Какие у вас хобби? 14. Вы любите спорт? 15. Вам нравятся виды спорта, которыми занимаются на открытом воздухе (outdoor sports) или в помещении (indoor sports)? 16. Какие ваши любимые виды спорта? 17. Какие ваши любимые книги? 18. Вам нравится классическая или популярная музыка? 19. Кто ваш любимый певец? 20. Кто ваши любимые актеры? 21. Вам нравится лето или зима? 22. Какое ваше любимое время года? 23. Почему лето ваше любимое время года?

Exercise 4
Write the questions
1.He reads books in the college library (2). 2. I always answer all letters (3). 3. Ann tells us about her lessons every evening (1). 4. They work at the same factory(2). 5. Their daughter studies at school (2). 6. My parents often go for a walkafter dinner(3). 7. Moscovites usually go by underground (2). 8. My sister usually comes from school at 2 o clock (3). 9. In the evening my father always reads his book about art (3). 10. Their uncle works at a big factory (2). 11. My sister gets up at 8 o'clock (3). 12. My uncle’ s son learns English at school (3).
13.Порядок слов в предложении.
В английском языке важен постоянный порядок слов.

Изменение порядка слов в английском предложении может полностью изменить его смысл:

Jim hit Billy.

Джим ударил Билли.


Billy hit Jim.

Билли ударил Джима.


Характерной чертой предложений в английском языке является твердый порядок слов.
Обычно порядок слов в английском предложении следующий:

Подлежащее + Сказуемое + Дополнение + Обстоятельство

We (подлежащее) do (сказуемое) our work (дополнение) with pleasure (обстоятельство).

Мы делаем нашу работу с удовольствием.


Обстоятельства места и времени могут стоять также и перед подлежащим:

At the moment I cannot talk.

В настоящий момент я не могу говорить.

Порядок слов в английском предложении: Обст-во времени или места+ Подлежащее+ Сказуемое+Дополнение +Обстоятельство



Exercise 1
На основе приведенных слов и словосочетаний постройте предложения, соблюдая правильный порядок слов:

1. always, at nine o'clock, out of the garage, in the morning, gets, his car, he


___________________________________________________________________________________
2. he, into town, after breakfast, often, Mrs Hodges, takes
___________________________________________________________________________________
3. a parking place, near the shops, they, find, rarely
___________________________________________________________________________________
4. sometimes, in a garage, Mr Hodges, his car, parks
___________________________________________________________________________________
5. fly, with my parents, to Florida, sometimes, I, in winter
___________________________________________________________________________________
6. late, came, last year, she, often, to school, in spring
___________________________________________________________________________________
7. often, have, at about three o'clock, a cup of tea, they, at the hotel, in the afternoon
___________________________________________________________________________________
8. meet, at the bar, they, after dinner, always, their friends
___________________________________________________________________________________
9. enjoys, very much, swimming, in our pool, always, in the morning, she
___________________________________________________________________________________

 10. играют / вечером/ они/ в парке/ в футбол


__________________________________________________________________________
11. Свою/ отдал/ брат/ коллекцию/ мне
__________________________________________________________________________
12. в классе/ что-то/ они/ шумно/ обсуждают
__________________________________________________________________________
13. мы/ всем/ родственника/ приглашения/ отправили
__________________________________________________________________________
14. в кафе/ встречались/ они/ вчера вечером
__________________________________________________________________________
15. Мама/ мне/ письмо/ передала/ от друга
__________________________________________________________________________
16. вёл/ машину/ он/ медленно
__________________________________________________________________________
17. На уроке/ мы/ слова/ вслух/ читали
__________________________________________________________________________

18. На основе приведенных слов постройте предложения, соблюдая порядок слов:

19. she, won, easily, the game
_______________________________________________________________________________________
20. tennis, every weekend, Ken, plays
______________________________________________________________________________________
21. quietly, the door, I, closed
______________________________________________________________________________________
22. his name, after a few minutes, I, remembered
______________________________________________________________________________________
23. a letter to her parents, Ann, writes, every week
______________________________________________________________________________________
24. some interesting books, found, we, in the library
______________________________________________________________________________________
25. across from the park, they, a new hotel, are building
______________________________________________________________________________________
26. to the bank, I, every Friday, go
______________________________________________________________________________________
27. on Saturday night, didn't see, at the party, you, I
______________________________________________________________________________________
28. brightly, is, shining, sun, the
______________________________________________________________________________________
29. in, lives, my, sister, New York
______________________________________________________________________________________
30. a, became, doctor, good, Mary
______________________________________________________________________________________

14.Предлоги места и направления. Предлоги времени.
Предлоги места.
1) Первый предлог – on - на
Этот предлог показывает нам, что предмет находится на другом предмете.
My phone is on the table – мой телефон на столе.
2) Следующий предлог – under — под.
Этот предлог показывает нам, что какой-то предмет находится под другим предметом.
Your pen is under the sofa – твоя ручка под диваном.
3) Предлог места – in - в
Этот предлог показывает нам то, что предмет находится в другом предмете.
His pencils are in the brief-case – его карандаши в портфеле.
4) Рассмотрим предлог at - у, около.
Он обозначает, что предмет находится в непосредственной близости от другого предмета.
Пример:

He is at the window – он у (около) окна.


Предлоги направления и движения.
1) Первый предлог – to - к, в, на.
Этот предлог показывает нам, что объект движется, направляется к другому объекту.

Go to that table, please – Иди(те) к тому столу, пожалуйста.


2) Следующий предлог – into – в.
Он образован из двух предлогов: in и to. Этот предлог означает, что объект движется по направлению к другому объекту с проникновением его внутрь.

Put her cap into the box – Положи(те) её кепку в ящик.

3)Рассмотрим предлог from - от, с, из, у.

Этот предлог означает, что объект движется от другого объекта (с его поверхности).


Please take your toys from your friend – возьми свои игрушки у своего друга, пожалуйста.
4) Следующий предлог – off. Этот предлог показывает нам движение объекта с поверхности другого объекта. Как правило, перевод предлога off – с, со.
Take the spoon off the table – возьми(те) ложку со стола.
5)Изучим предлог out of -из.

Этот предлог показывает нам движение объекта изнутри другого объекта наружу.


Take your spoon out of my cup – Возьми(те) свою ложку из моей чашки.

Exercise 1

Fill in  on, in или into.

1. There are many people … the park today. 2. There is a girl standing … the bridge. Why is she crying? – She has dropped her doll … the water. 3. There is no tea … my cup. 4. Pour some tea … my cup. 5. Put these flowers … the windowsill. 6. I saw many people … the platform waiting for the train. 7. We went … the garden and sat down … a bench. 8. The teacher hung a picture … the blackboard. 9. I opened the door and went … the classroom. The teacher was writing some words … the blackboard. The pupils were writing  these words … their exercise books. There were two maps … the wall and some flowers … the windowsills. I saw a pen … the floor. I picked it up and put it … the table. 10. He put his hand … his pocket, took out a letter and dropped it … the mailbox which hung … the wall of the house. Then he got … his car and drove off. 11. Where is the book? – It is … the table. 12. Where is the tea? – It is … the cup. 13. Put the plates … the table. 14. Put the book … the bag. 15. There is a beautiful picture … the wall. 16. He went … the room. 17. I like to sit … the sofa … my room. 19. She went … the room and sat down … the sofa.

 

Exercise 2

Translate the sentences into English. Fill in on, in, at, to, into.
1.Мы собрали в лесу много грибов. 2. Маша открыла дверь и вошла в дом. В доме никого не было. Медведи были в лесу. В комнате Маша увидела стол. Она подошла к столу. На столе она увидела три тарелки. 3. Катя была в комнате. Она стояла у книжного шкафа. 4. На полу лежал толстый ковер. Дети сели на ковер и начали играть. 5. Где мальчики? – Они играют во дворе. 6. Сейчас зима. На земле лежит снег. На реке лед. 7. Она подошла к доске, взяла мел и начала писать на доске. 8. Масло на столе. Поставь его в холодильник. А теперь садись за стол. В этом стакане сок. Выпей его и поставь стакан на полку. 9. Где твоя ручка? – Она в моем кармане. 10. Положи в карман платок. 11. Он прыгнул в реку и быстро поплыл к острову. 12. Идите к доске. 13. Напишите число на доске. 14. Повесьте картину на доску. 15. Она налила в вазу воды и поставила в нее цветы. Потом она подошла к окну и поставила вазу на подоконник. 16. Учитель стоит у доски. Он пишет на доске предложение. Ученики сидят за партами. Они пишет это предложение в своих тетрадях. 17. Ник вошел на кухню и сел за стол. Мама стояла у плиты. Она подошла к столу, поставила на стол чашку и налила в чашку чаю.
Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks with: a down, up, under, below, over, above
1. Why are you so late? — Our car stuck___the bridge. 2. You are cold. Put this plaid___your knees. 3. It seems to me that she is___twenty-one. 4. There is nothing new___the sun. 5. The branch hit me just___ the elbow. 6. Climb___at once! You may fall! 7. My house is___the street, on the hill, and my brother lives ___the street, by the river. 8. We are on the second floor

in the dining room now.___it there used to be a bedroom of the countess and___it you can see the famous orangery which has been carefully kept for two centuries already.


В before, in front of, behind, at the back, opposite
1. She likes to stand___the mirror looking at herself. 2.1 like this cottage very much. There is a lawn___the house and___there is a garden. 3. You should return ___sunset. 4. You've come the last. You are___me in the queue. 5. At lunch she was sitting ___me, so I couldn't help looking at her. 6. If you don't want to go here, you may use another exit___. 7.1 want to take your photograph___our new jeep. 8. You'll find the church easily. There is a cinema___it on the other side of the road.
С along, through, across, past
1. Our cottage is rather far. You should drive___the church,___a small wood, then___the river (there is a wooden bridge) and finally___the wide road. Our house is by this road. 2. Paul is a good swimmer. He can swim ___the river. 3. She went___me without saying a word.

4. The burglar got into the house___an open window. 5. He ran___the lawn and came up to the French window. 6. They went___the bank of the river talking loudly. 7. Oil flows___a pipeline. 8. When she was going ___ the jewellery shop, her attention was attracted by a necklace in the shop window.


D among, between
1. Differences in pronunciation___British English and American English are numerous. 2. For her there is not much choice___Paul and Nick. 3. She could see him ___people in the crowd. 4. You may divide this money ___you both. 5. There is an oak tree___birches and pines near my house. 6. Tom is the smartest___the other students. 7. There has always been a tough

competition ___ Coca-Cola and Pepsi. 8. Harvard University comes first___the other universities of the USA. 9.___you and me.sheis a wicked old gossip.


Exercise 4
Fill in the blanks with the prepositions of time in, on, at where necessary.

I. I usually finish work early___Friday. I don't work___the weekend. 2. Let's meet___five___Sunday, July 14. 3.1 am busy___the moment. Come___ten minutes' time, please. 4. There was a boat race in Southampton___Easter Day. A lot of people usually come there___Easter to see the race. 5. Can you imagine what the world will be___.the year 2100? 6. When will you have your holiday,___winter or___summer? — I'll have it late___August. 7.We started off___midnight and reached the place of destination___twelve hours ___noon. 8.1 was in France in 1997___that time I was working as a waiter in a small cafe. 9.___the age of sixteen he left his parents' house. 10.___her wedding day she got up.___dawn. 11. You must come and have tea with us___next Thursday. Are you free___Thursday? 12.I received a lot of presents ___ my birthday. 13. Leonardo da Vinci lived and worked __ the Middle Ages. 14.___every day he got up early___the morning and went to bed late___night. 15.___ the 19th century many people died of cholera and smallpox.



Exercise 5

Complete the sentences with «in», «on», «or», «at».

  1. Christmas is …… the 25th of December.

  2. It’s cold …… winter.

  3. I always have a nap ……. The afternoon.

  4. My birthday is ……. October.

  5. She left late ……… night.

  6. Sue’s party is ……. 4 o’clock …… Friday.

  7. We watch cartoons on TV …… the evening.

  8. It’s hot ……… summer.

  9. He woke up late ……… the morning.

  10. She moved house ……… 1989.

  11. We usually don’t go out ….. Mondays.

  12. It’s windy ………. Autumn.

  13. Her daughter was born ………. August 2nd.

  14. They got married …….. July.



  15. Exercise 6


Fill in: «in», «on», «or», «at».

1.At Christmas, our family has a good time. We always have a party 2)………… the 24 th of December. 3)…… the afternoon we make pies and 4)…….. night the party starts. People start to arrive 5)……… 9 o’clock. 6)……. midnight, we all sing «We Wish You a Marry Christmas». Christmas day is 7)……. The 25 th of December. 8)…….. the morning we open our presents and 9)…….. 2 o’clock we have «Christmas dinner». My favorite Christmas was 10)…….. 1990. We visited our uncle in Australia. Christmas is 11)……….. summer there. We had our Christmas dinner on the beach 12)…….. the afternoon.



15.Настоящее простое время.


Present Simple используется :
Для действий которые происходят изо дня в день или на дню несколько раз.
I go to college every day.
Для общепринятых фактов и законов природы.
The sun sets in the west.
Для расписаний или программ.
The lesson starts at 9 o`clock.
Наречия времени , с которыми используется Present Simple:
usually,always,never,often,sometimes,every day/week/month/year,seldom,in the morning/afternoon/evening.

Exercise 1
Образуйте отрицательную форму предложений.
1. I visit my parents very often.

2. They live in Great Britain.

3. He goes to school by bus.

4. She lives in this house.

5. He wants to be a doctor.

6. They play tennis every Sunday.

7. We work every day.

8. My sister goes to bed at nine.

9. Usually I have dinner very late.

10. My brother watches TV every evening.

11. She likes classical music.

12. We go to the theatre once a month.


Exercise 2

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple.
1. My working day (to begin) at seven o’clock.

2. I (not to walk) to work every morning.

3. She (to do) her morning exercises every day.

4. He (to speak) German.

5. I (to visit) my friend every week.

6. Her first class (to start) at eight o’clock.

7. Ann (not to read) a lot.

8. He always (to invite) his friends to his birthday party.

9. I (to go) for a walk every day.

10. She (to wash) her car once a week.



Exercise 3

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple

1. Alice (to have) a sister.


2. Her sister’s name (to be) Ann.
3. Ann (to be) a student.
4. She (to get) up at seven o'clock. 
5. She (to go) to the institute in the morning. 
6. Jane (to be) fond of sports. 
7. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 
8. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 
9. After breakfast she (to go) to the institute. 
10. Sometimes she (to take) a bus.
11. It (to take) her an hour and a half to do her homework. 
12. She (to speak) English well.
13. Her friends usually (to call) her at about 8 o’clock.
14. Ann (to take) a shower before going to bed.
15. She (to go) to bed at 11 p. m.
Exercise 4

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple.

1. My working day (to begin) at six o'clock. 


2. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the TV and (to brush) my teeth. 
3. It (to take) me about twenty minutes.
4. I (to have) breakfast at seven o’clock. 
5. I (to leave) home at half past seven.
6. I (to take) a bus to the institute. 
7. It usually (to take) me about fifteen minutes to get there.
8. Classes (to begin) at eight. 
9. We usually (to have) four classes a day.
10. I (to have) lunch at about 2 o’clock.

Exercise 5

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple.

1)They _____ football at the institute. (to play)


2) She _____ emails. (not / to write)
3) ____ you____ English? (to speak)
4) My mother ____ fish. (not / to like)
5) ____ Ann ____ any friends? (to have)
6) His brother _____ in an office. (to work)
7) She ___ very fast. (cannot / to read)
8) ____ they ____ the flowers every 3 days? (to water)
9) His wife _____ a motorbike. (not / to ride)
10) ____ Elizabeth_____ coffee? (to drink)


16. Настоящее продолженное время.
Настоящее продолженное время в английском языке используется для обозначения процесса действия, происходящего в момент речи. Время образуется при помощи форм вспомогательного глагола to be в настоящем времени и смыслового глагола, к которому добавляется окончание –ing.
Настоящее продолженное время употребляется :

Как мы уже говорили, чаще всего настоящее продолженное время обозначает действие, происходящее в момент речи, сейчас.
It's snowing. Идет снег.

John is talking on the phone. Джон сейчас разговаривает по телефону.
Временное действие, которое перестанет быть актуальным в ближайшем будущем.
The Smiths’ are looking for a new house. Семья Смит ищет новый дом.
I’m thinking about changing a job. Я думаю поменять работу.

Запланированное на будущее действие.
We’re going to the cinema tonight. Сегодня вечером мы идем в кино.
My friends are arriving tomorrow morning. Мои друзья приезжают завтра утром.
Постоянно повторяющееся действие, которое раздражает говорящего (со словами always, constantly, forever – всегда, постоянно, все время).
My sister is always coming late.
Наречия времени, с которыми используется настоящее продолженное время : at the moment, all day, now.
Exercise 1
Chose a verb from the list and complete the text.

read, sleep, eat, sail, cry, drink, run, sing, play, fish, sit


Laura 1) is sitting under a sunshade. Two boys 2) …….. round a sandcastle while their father 3) …….. a newspaper. Tom 4)…….. coke. Two girls 5) ……. Ice-cream while their mother 6) …….. along with the radio. Some boys 7) …… football near a man who 8)………. . Jim 9)………. . On his right a baby 10) ……. . Some people 11) ……….. past the beach.
Exercise 2
Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous.
1. The boys (to run) about in the garden. 2 I (to do) my homework. 3. John and his friends (to go) to the library. 4. Ann (to sit) at  her desk. She (to study) geography. 5. A young man (to stand) at the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette. 6. The old man (to walk) about the room.7. The dog (to lie) on the floor. 8. You (to have) a break? 9. What language you (to study)? 10. Who (to lie) on the sofa? 11. What they (to talk) about? 12. It still (to rain). 

 Exercise 3


Put the verbs into Present Continuous. Translate the sentences into English

1. Я читаю. 


_______________________________________________________________________

2. Он не пишет. 


_______________________________________________________________________

3. Мы не работаем. 


_______________________________________________________________________

4. Вы читаете? 


_______________________________________________________________________

5. Он спит? 


_______________________________________________________________________

6. Ник и Майк играют в футбол. 


_______________________________________________________________________

7. Кэйт играет на рояле. 


_______________________________________________________________________

8. Она не поет. 


_______________________________________________________________________

9. Моя сестра спит. 


______________________________________________________________________

10. Папа пьет чай? 


_______________________________________________________________________

11. Твои родители пьют чай? 


_______________________________________________________________________

12. Я не сплю. 


______________________________________________________________________

13. Она сидит за столом. 


_______________________________________________________________________

14. Мы делаем упражнение. 


______________________________________________________________________

15. Мы не купаемся. 


______________________________________________________________________

16. Они играют во дворе? 


______________________________________________________________________

17. Нина и Энн моют пол. 


______________________________________________________________________

18. Ник помогает маме. 


______________________________________________________________________

19. Ты помогаешь папе? 


______________________________________________________________________

20. Моя сестра читает интересную книгу. 


____________________________________________________________________

21. Они идут в школу. 


____________________________________________________________________

22. Вы идете в школу? 


_________________________________________________________________

23. Он работает? 


_____________________________________________________________________

24 . 
Твоя бабушка идет в магазин? 
___________________________________________________________________

25. Он покупает конфеты. 


______________________________________________________________

26. Что делает твоя сестра? 


_________________________________________________________________

27. 
Где играют дети? 
__________________________________________________________________

28. Почему ты смеешься? 


________________________________________________________________

29. Куда они идут? 


_________________________________________________________________

30. Что несут эти мальчики?



17.Прошедшее простое время (правильные глаголы).

Past Simple (прошедшее простое время) используется :


Для выражения прошедшего действия с указанием времени.

I sold my car two weeks ago.

Для выражения действий,которые произошли в прошлом одно за другим.
She put on her coat,took her bag,left the house.
Когда действие произошло в прошлом и не имеет связи с настоящим.
I saw Elvis Presley.

Наречия времени, с которыми используется Past Simple.


Yesterday , last night/week / month / year , two days ago .
Если глагол правильный , то к нему прибавляется окончание — ed.


Present Simple

Past Simple

watch

watched

clean

cleaned

visit

visited

work

worked

look

looked

18.Прошедшее простое время (неправильные глаголы).

Past Simple (прошедшее простое время) используется :


Для выражения прошедшего действия с указанием времени.

I sold my car two weeks ago.

Для выражения действий,которые произошли в прошлом одно за другим.
She put on her coat,took her bag,left the house.
Когда действие произошло в прошлом и не имеет связи с настоящим.
I saw Elvis Presley.

Наречия времени, с которыми используется Past Simple.

Yesterday , last night/week / month / year , two days ago .
Если глагол неправильный , то он меняет свою корневую гласную, или глагол меняется целиком.


Present Simple

Past Simple

break

broke

meet

met

go

went

have

had

make

made


Exercise 1
Put the verbs in brackets into Past Simple.
1. He (to look) at her for a moment with surprise.

2. She (not to smile) when she (to see) him.

3. On the way home she usually (to buy) a slice of honey cake at the baker’s.

4. The stranger (to climb) into his car and (to drive away), and when he (to notice) later that his speedometer (to indicate) seventy-five, he (to laugh) at himself but (not to slow down).

5. When he (to arrive) he (to find) the patient to be a small boy of nine years of age.

6. A quarter of an hour later he (to hear) voices.

7. A little before nine o’clock I (to descend) to the ground floor.

8. On the fifteenth of October Andrew (to set out) alone for London.

9. Clapper (to stare) at the photograph without a change of expression for at least half a minute.

10. When Eddy (to leave) in the morning he (to take) her photograph with him.

11. Their children (to clean) the yard and then they (to play) basketball.

12. They (to wait) for the bus. The bus (to arrive) at 8 o’clock.

13. Last Monday they (to visit) their friends.

14. What your neighbours (to do) yesterday?

15. The little girl (to cry) a little and then (to smile).

Exercise 2
Put the verbs into Past Simple.

On Tuesday I get up at half past six. I go to the bathroom and wash my hands and face and clean my teeth. Then I dress, go to the kitchen and cook breakfast for my family. At half past seven my son gets up and has breakfast. I have breakfast with my son. My son eats a sandwich and drinks a cup of tea. I don't drink tea. I drink coffee. After Breakfast my son leaves home for school. I don't leave home with my son. On Tuesday I don't work in the morning. I work in the afternoon. In the evening I am at home. My husband and my son areat home, too. We rest in the evening. My son watches TV, my husband reads newspapers and I do some work about the house. At



Exercise 3
Put the verbs into Past Simple.

On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is English. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. 


He answers well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and take a book. Then I go home,about eleven o'clock we go to bed.


Exercise 4
Put the verbs into Past Simple.
1. Alice (to have) a sister.
2. Her sister’s name (to be) Ann.
3. Ann (to be) a student.
4. She (to get) up at seven o'clock. 
5. She (to go) to the institute in the morning. 
6. Jane (to be) fond of sports. 
7. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 
8. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 
9. After breakfast she (to go) to the institute. 
10. Sometimes she (to take) a bus.
11. It (to take) her an hour and a half to do her homework. 
12. She (to speak) English well.
13. Her friends usually (to call) her at about 8 o’clock.
14. Ann (to take) a shower before going to bed.
15. She (to go) to bed at 11 p. m.


19.Будущее простое время.
Future Simple используется, когда мы говорим о вещах,в которых мы не уверены, что осуществим в ближайшем будущем.

I will probably buy a new car.


Со словами expect, hope, believe, I am afraid of, I am sure, I know, I think, probably, а такаже когда мы выражаем надежду, предложение, обещание, предупркждение, предсказание и т.д.
I think, it will be sunny tomorrow.
Когда мы говорим о действиях или предсказываем действия, которые могут или не могут произойти.
She will probably phone later.
to be going to - собираться что- либо сделать.
to be going to используется в следующих ситуациях
Когда мы говорим о вещах , в которых мы уверены , что осуществим их в ближайщем будущем.

I am going to buy a new car.

Когда мы знаем что что-то произойдет.
it's going to rain.
Наречия времени , с которыми используется Future Simple : tomorrow, tonight, the next week, the day after tomorrow, in two days, in a week.

Exercise 1
Put the verbs into Future Simple or be going to to.


  1. She is sure that he ___________ (not/manage) to catch the train.

  2. Next year we _______________ (travel) together around Europe.

  3. The athletes soon _________ (return) from the competition.

  4. His parents think Jim __________ (become) a doctor one day.

  5. They have bought new sports shoes. They ___________ (start) running next week.

  6. It’s getting dark. I ___________ (turn) on the light.

  7. They __________ (be) eighteen next month.

  8. Scientists for sure _________ (find) a cure for this disease.


20.Числительные. Виды числительных.
Именем числительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает количество или порядок предметов.Имена числительные делятся на количественные (Cardinal Numerals) и порядковые (Ordinal Numerals).

Количественные числительные обозначают количество предметов и отвечают на вопрос how many? сколько? Например: one один, two два, three три и т. д.

Порядковые числительные обозначают порядок предметов и отвечают на вопрос which? который? Например: first первый, second второй, third третий и т. д.


количественные числительные

простые

составные

0 - 12

13 - 19 (+teen)

20 - 90 (+ty),

100,1000, 1000000



1. Составные числительные от 20 до 100 образуются так же, как и в русском языке: 25 - twenty—five, 93 - ninety—three.

2. В составных числительных после 100 перед десятками, а если их нет, то перед единицами, ставится союз and: 375 (three hundred and seventy-five), 2941 (two thousand nine hundred and forty-one)



0 — zero

1 — one


2 — two

3 — three

4 — four

5 — five


6 — six

7 — seven

8 — eight

9 — nine


10 — ten

11 — eleven

12 — twelve


13 — thirteen

14 — fourteen

15 — fifteen

16 — sixteen

17 — seventeen

18 — eighteen

19 — nineteen


20 — twenty

30 — thirty

40 — forty

50 — fifty

60 — sixty

70 — seventy

80 — eighty

90 — ninety

100 — one (a) hundred

1,000 — one (a) thousand

1,000,000 — one (a) million
1,000,000,000 — a (one) milliard (в Англии); a (one) billion (в США)

Числительные hundred, thousand, million не приобретают окончание s как показатель множественного числа, однако если эти слова выполняют функцию существительных, т. е. перед ними нет числительного (а после них обычно стоит предлог of), то во множественном числе добавляется s: hundreds of people сотни людей, thousands of words тысячи слов.


Порядковые числительные образуются от соответствующих количественных числительных путем прибавления суффикса th: seven — seventh седьмой, twenty-four — twenty-fourth двадцать четвертый.


правила образования порядковых числительных

№ п/п

правило

пример

1

В составных порядковых числительных суффикс -th присоединяется к последнему слову

the forty-sixth сорок шестой

2

Перед порядковыми числительными обычно употребляется определенный артикль

the tenth десятый

3

Десятки, имеющие конечное -y, меняют его на -ie-

ninety девяносто - ninetieth девяностый

4

исключения

the first первый, the second второй, the third третий, the fifth пятый, the ninth девятый, the twelfth двенадцатый

Иногда количественное числительное следует за определяемым словом, тогда оно, по существу, имеет значение порядкового. Сравните: Lesson One урок 1 - the first lesson первый урок.




функции числительного в предложении

№ п/п

функция

пример

1

Подлежащее

Three were absent from the leсture. Трое отсутствовали на лекции.

2

Дополнение

How many books did you take from the library? I took three. Сколько книг вы взяли в библиотеке? Я взял три.

3

Определение

The second lesson begins at eleven o’clock. Второй урок начинается в одиннадцать часов.

4

Именная часть составного сказуемого

Five times five is twenty-five. Пятью пять — двадцать пять.

В простых дробях числитель обозначается количественным числительным, а знаменатель - порядковым. Порядковое числительное, т. е. знаменатель, принимает окончание множественного числа -s, если числитель больше единицы.




Простые дроби (THE FRACTIONS)

пишется

читается

пишется

читается

1/2

1/3


1/4

1/5


1/10

1/25


1/100

1/1225


a (one) half

a (one) third

a (one) fourth/quarter

a (one) fifth

a (one) tenth

a (one) twenty-fifth

a (one) hundredth

a (one) thousand two hundred and

twenty-fifth


2/3

3/4


4/7

7/18


9/10

2 1/2


3 1/4

2/5 ton


1/4 kilometre

1/2 kilometre



two thirds

three fourths/quarters

four sevenths

seven eighteenths

nine tenths

two and a half

three and a quarter/fourth

two fifths of a ton

quarter of a kilometre

half a kilometre






Десятичные дроби (THE DECIMAL FRACTIONS)

особенности

пишется

читается

В десятичных дробях в английском языке ставится точка (point) вместо запятой

0.2

.2

0.5



3.4

3.215


53.75

(zero) point two

point two

(zero) point five

three point four

three point two one five

fifty-three point seven five



При чтении обозначения года называют два двузначных числа, соответствующих двум первым и двум последним цифрам обозначения:

ЧТЕНИЕ ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЯ ГОДА

ПИШЕТСЯ

ЧИТАЕТСЯ

1612

1812

1941

1960

1900

1905

sixteen twelve

eighteen twelve

nineteen forty-one

nineteen sixty

nineteen hundred

nineteen o [ou] five



В таком чтении слово year год не добавляется:

Pushkin was born in seventeen ninety-nine. Пушкин родился в 1799 году.



Годы могут читаться и по-другому: 1754 - the year seventeen hundred and fifty-four. Такое чтение иногда встречается в документах.

N. B.

2000 год the year two thousand

Начиная с 2001, годы читаются как количественные числительные:



2007 two thousand (and) seven
Начиная с 2010 года всё чаще встречается чтение года как двух чисел:
2014 - twenty fourteen, 2020 - twenty twenty




ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЕ И ЧТЕНИЕ ДАТ

ПИШЕТСЯ

ЧИТАЕТСЯ

ПЕРЕВОД

25th July, 1976
July 25 (25th), 1976
25 July 1976

The twenty-fifth of July, nineteen seventy-six;

July the twenty-fifth, nineteen seventy-six





25 июля 1976 года




АНГЛИЙСКИЕ МЕРЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ

МЕРА

ЭКВИВАЛЕНТ

1 inch  1 дюйм

2.54 centimetres 2,54 см

1 foot  1 фут

30.4799 centimetres 30,4799 см

1 yard  1 ярд

0.914399 metre  0,914399 м

1 mile  1 миля

1.609344 kilometres  1,609344 км

1 ounce  1 унция

28.35 grams  28,35 г

1 pound  1 фунт

453.59 grams  453,59 г



Exercise 1

Write Numerals
а) 98, 31, 56, 47, 13, 15, 19, 100;

б) 25 студентов; 1-й урок; 64 книги; 4 окна; сорок; сороковой; 12 стульев; одна тысяча.


Exercise 2
Write Numerals
13; 45; 233; 4841; 3701; 1,405,241; 4/6; 1/3; 0.7; .8; 4.16 ;2,10,30,87,92
Exercise 3
Write Numerals

1) 2, 12, 20; 3, 13, 30; 4, 14, 40; 5, 15, 50;

6, 16, 60; 7, 17, 70; 8, 18, 80; 9, 19, 90.

2) 134; 245; 306; 403; 6,075; 8,279; 1, 005; 2,625; 5,247; 893


Exercise 4

Write Numerals
1, 11, 21; 2, 12, 20; 3,13,30; 4, 14, 40; 5, 15, 50; 6, 16, 60; 8, 18, 80; 9, 19,

90; 100, 103, 300, 425; 1.000; 1.015



Exercise 5

Write Numerals
568; 101; 4,628; 6,005; 1,204; 782; 9,004; 1,106,351; 5.I – 1946; 8.III – 1950; 22.IX – 1948; 11X – 1956; 1.V – 1917; 23.II –

1941; 9.VIII – 1905; 12.XII – 1979; 6.I – 1996


Exercise 6

Write Numerals
3/8; 5/6; 1/7; 7/9.

10.234; 0.3; 85.04; 0.0079; 0.25; 0.75; 345.1206.




Pre-Tests
Exercise 1

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous  or Present Simple. 
I (to read) now.   He (to sleep) now.   We (to drink) tea now.  They (to go) to school now.  I (not to sleep) now. She (not to drink) coffee now. I (to read) every day. He (to sleep) every night. We (to drink) tea every morning. They (to go) to school every morning. I (not to sleep) in the daytime. She (not to drink) coffee after lunch. We (not to watch) TV now.   They (not to eat) now.  My mother (not to work) now. You (to work ) now? He (to play) now?   They (to eat) now? Your sister (to rest) now?  What you (to do) now?  What you (to read) now?  What they (to eat) now?   What your brother (to drink) now?  We (not to watch) TV in  the morning. They (not to eat) at the  lesson. My mother (not to work)  at an office.  You (to work) every day?  He (to play) in the afternoon? They (to eat) at school?  Your sister (to rest) after school?   What you (to do) every   morning? What you (to read) after   dinner? What they (to eat) at   breakfast? What your brother (to  drink) in the evening? 

 Exercise 2



Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous  or Present Simple. 

1. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 2. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning. 3. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 4. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 5. Look! The baby (to sleep). 6. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 7. My grandmother (not to work). She is on pension. 8. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 9. I usually (to get) up at seven o'clock in the morning. 10. What your sister (to do) now? - - She (to wash) her face and hands. 11. When you usually (to come) home from school? — I (to come) at three o'clock. 12. Where your cousin (to work)? -- He (to work) at a hospi-taJ. 13. Your sister (to study) at an institute? -No, she (to study) at school. 14. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 15. My mother (not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning. 

 

 

Exercise 3



Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous  or Present Simple. 

1. I (to read) books in the evening. 2. I (not to read) books in the morning. 3. I (to write) an exercise now. 4. I (not to write) a letter now. 5. They (to play) in the yard now. 6. They (not to play) in the street now. 7. They (to play) in the room now? 8. He (to help) his mother every day. 9. He (to help) his mother every day? 10. He (not to help) his mother every day. 11. You (to go) to school on Sunday? 12. My friend (not to like) to play football. 13.1 (not to read) now. 14. He (to sleep) now? 15.We (not to go) to the country in winter. 16.My sister (to eat) sweets every day. 17. She (not to eat) sweets now. 18. They (to do) their homework in the afternoon. 19. They (not to go) for a walk in the evening. 20. My father (not to work) on Sunday. 21. He (to work) every day. 

 Exercise 4

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous  or Present Simple. 
It 1) is (be) winter and the snow 2)….. in January here/ Betty and James 4)…….. (play) in the garden . They 5) ……..(build) a snowman and they 6) ………(throw) snowballs . The 7) ……….(like) the snow very much ! Their mother and father 8) …….(not / like ) it . They always 9) …….(stay) in the house when it is cold . Mother usually 10) …….(watch) TV and Father 11)……(listen) to the radio or 12) …….(read) a book . At the moment they 13) ……..(sit) in the living-room . Mother 14)…..(write) a letter and father 15) ……….(read) a book.

Exercise 5

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous ,Present Simple, Past Simple or Future Simple

 1.I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 3. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock tomorrow. 4. I (not to go) to the cinema every day. 5. I (not to go) to the cinema yesterday. 6. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. 7. You (to watch) TV every day? 8. You (to watch) TV yesterday? 9. You (to watch) TV tomorrow? 10. When you (to leave) home for school every day?  11.   When you (to leave) home for school yesterday?  12. When you (to leave) home for school tomorrow?  13. My brother (to go) to work every day. He (to leave) home at a quarter past eight. As the office he (to work) at (to be) near our house, he (to walk) there. He (not to take) a bus. Yesterday he (riot to go) to work. Yesterday he (to get) up at nine o'clock. 14. You (to have) a PT lesson yesterday? — No, I... . 15.  What you (to buy) at the shop yesterday? -I (to buy) a book. 16. Yesterday my father (not to read) newspapers because he (to be) very busy. He (to read) newspapers tomorrow.



Exercise 6

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous ,Present Simple, Past Simple or Future Simple

1. He (to spend) last summer in the country.  2. He (not to spend) last summer in the country. 3. He (to spend) last summer in the country?  4.  Where he (to spend) last summer? 5. She (to help) mother yesterday. 6. She (not to help) mother yesterday. 7. She (to help) mother yesterday? 8. How she (to help) mother yesterday? 9. Kate (to cook) dinner every day. 10. Kate (to cook) dinner tomorrow. 11. Kate (to cook) dinner now. 12. Kate (to cook) dinner yesterday. 13. I (not to eat) ice-cream every day. 14. I (not to eat) ice-cream now, 15. I (not to eat) ice-cream tomorrow. 16. I (not to eat) ice-cream yesterday. 17. You (to go) to school every day? 18. You (to go) to school now? 19. You (to go) to the south next summer? 20. You (to go) abroad last summer? 21. What your brother (to do) every day? 22. What your brother (to do) now? 23. What your brother (to do) tomorrow? 24. What your brother (to do) yesterday? 

 

 Exercise 7



Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous ,Present Simple, Past Simple or Future Simple 

1. Mother (to cook) a very tasty dinner yesterday. 2. Tomorrow Nick (not to go) to school. 3. Look! My friends (to play) football. 4, Kate (not to write) letters every day. 5. You (to see) your friend yesterday? 6. Your father (to go) on a business trip last month? 7. What Nick (to do) yesterday? 8. When Nick (to get) up every morning? 9. Where your mother (to go) tomorrow? 10. I (to invite) my friends to come to my place tomorrow. 11. He (not to play) the piano tomorrow. 12. We (to see) a very good film last Sunday. 13. Your mother (to cook) every day? 14. We (to make) a fire last summer. 15. I (to spend) last summer at the seaside. 16. Where you (to spend) last summer? 17. Where he (to spend) next summer? 18. What mother (to do) now? — She (to cook) dinner. 19. I (not to play) computer games yesterday. 20. Last Sunday we (to go) to the theatre. 21. I (to meet) my friend yesterday. 22. I (to write) a letter to my cousin yesterday. 23. You (to write) a dictation tomorrow? 24. I (not to write) a report now. 

 Exercise 8

Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous ,Present Simple, Past Simple or Future Simple

1. We (to go) on a tramp last Sunday. 2. Your brother (to go) to the country with us next Sunday? 3. Granny (not to cook) dinner now. 4. We (to cook) our meals on a fire last summer. 5. My sister (to wash) the dishes every morning. 6. When you (to go) to school? 7. What you (to prepare) for breakfast tomorrow? 8. You (to invite) your cousin to stay with you next summer? 9. How you (to help) your sister last summer? 10. I (to send) a letter to my friend tomorrow. 11. Every morning on the way to school I (to meet) my friends. 12. My friend (to go) to the library every Wednesday. 13. He (not to go) to the country yesterday. 14. Why you (to go) to the shop yesterday? 15. We (to grow) tomatoes next summer. 16. What you (to do) now? 17. He (to sleep) now. 18. Where your father (to work) last year? 19. You (to go) to the south next summer! 20. He (not to watch) TV yesterday. 21. Yesterday we (to write) a test-paper. 22. 1 (to buy) a very good book last Tuesday. 23. My granny (not to buy) bread yesterday. 24. What you (to buy) at the shop tomorrow? 25. Don't make noise! Father(to work). 

 

 Exercise 9



Put the verbs in brackets into Present Continuous ,Present Simple, Past Simple or Future Simple

1. Various kinds of sports (to be) popular in England. 2. Both children and grown-ups (to be) fond of sports. 3. What (to be) the matter with her? She (to be) so excited. - I (not to know). 4. Where you (to go)? - - I (to go) to the to see the  match which (to take) place there today. 5. You (to know) that a very interesting match (to take) place last Sunday? 6. He (to go) to the south a week ago. 7. When I (to be) about fifteen years old, I (to enjoy) playing football. 8. Our football team (to win) many games last year. 9. Where (to be) Barry? - He (to play) chess with his friend. 10. 1 (to be) sorry I (to miss) the match yesterday. But I (to know) the score. It (to be) 4 to 2 in favour of the NTP team. 11. Nellie (to leave) for Jacksonville tomorrow. 12. I (to be) in a hurry. My friends (to wait) for me. 13. You (to be) at the theatre yesterday. You (to like) the opera? — Oh yes, I (to enjoy) it greatly.  14. You (to go) to London next summer?

 

Text for Reading




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