| Семинар 5. Обзор функциональных стилей современного языка
Термины: стиль, функциональный стиль, подстиль, речевой жанр
Вопросы к семинару:
1. Какие принципы положены в основу классификации функциональных стилей?
2. Расскажите о следующих функциональных стилях и их задачах:
1) Литературно-обработанный («книжный») стиль.
а) публицистический стиль;
б) научно-технический стиль;
в) официально-канцелярский/деловой/ стиль
2) Свободный («разговорный») стиль.
а) литературно-разговорный стиль;
б) фамильярно-разговорный стиль;
в) просторечие и диалект
Практические задания по английскому языку:
Прочитайте и сравните следующие отрывки, описывающие одно и то же событие. Отметьте лексические и структурные различия между ними.
He walked slowly down the road, admiring the sunset.
I’ve just seen old A. He was having a walk. Couldn’t take his eyes off the sunset.
(A . walks slowly across stage, admiring sunset.)
Saw A. walking slowly down road. Was admiring sunset.
Popular newspaper report:
Jack A., 32-year-old father of three, walked slowly down the road known as the ‘friendly road’ by neighbours. He was just admiring the sunset when...
Slowly he went down the road
Eyes only for the setting sun...
Roadwalker and sunwatcher, he...
My friends. I should like to tell you what I saw the other night. A man – a mere human being like any of us – was walking slowly down the road.
Case history: A., a married man aged about thirty-two. He described an occasion when he walked down the road. He suddenly found himself very strongly attracted by the sunset. I asked him to describe any other symptoms...
In the most sensational and dramatic story ever brought to the screen, you will see A. walk slowly down the road and admire the sunset. Don’t miss it. It’s the most brilliant, stupendous, magnificent performance of his entire acting career.
On May the twenty-seventh last, at nine oh five (9.05) p.m., I observed A. following the left-hand pavement for about forty yards in a south-westerly direction. As he proceeded he raised his eyes to an elevation of about 30 degrees and seemed, as far as it was possible to judge, to be gazing at the sun.
The defendant has been accused of walking along Redtree Road on the evening of May the twenty-seventh and at the same time admiring the sunset.
MAN WALKS DOWN ROAD: ADMIRES SUNSET
Sensation! Man Walks Down Road
This guy was stretching his legs and getting an eyeful of the sunset.
Определите стиль и жанр текста. Проанализируйте особенности морфологической, лексической и синтаксической организации данных текстов.
Techniques of comparison form a natural part of the literary critic's analytic and evaluative process: in discussing one work, critics frequently have in mind, and almost as frequently appeal to, works in the same or another language. Comparative literature systematically extends this latter tendency, aiming to enhance awareness of the qualities of one work by using the products of another linguistic culture as an illuminating context; or studying some broad topic or theme as it is realized ("transformed") in the literatures of different languages. It is worth insisting on comparative literature's kinship with criticism in general, for there is evidently a danger that its exponents may seek to argue an unnatural distinctiveness in their activities (this urge to establish a distinct identity is the source of many unfruitfully abstract justifications of comparative literature); and on the other hand a danger that its opponents may regard the discipline as nothing more than demonstration of "affinities" and "influences" among different literatures - an activity which is not critical at all, belonging rather to the categorizing spirit of literary history.
Nothing could be more obvious, it seems to me, than that art should be moral and that the first business of criticism, at least some of the time, should be to judge works of literature (or painting or even music) on grounds of the production's moral worth. By "moral" I do not mean some such timid evasion as "not too blatantly immoral". It is not enough to say, with the support of mountains of documentation from sociologists, psychiatrists, and the New York City Police Department, that television is a bad influence when it actively encourages pouring gasoline on people and setting fire to them. On the contrary, television - or any other more or less artistic medium - is good (as opposed to pernicious or vacuous) only when it has a clear positive moral effect, presenting valid models for imitation, eternal verities worth keeping in mind, and a benevolent vision of the possible which can inspire and incite human beings towards virtue, towards life affirmation as opposed to destruction or indifference. This obviously does not mean that art should hold up cheap or cornball models of behaviour, though even those do more good in the short run than does, say, an attractive bad model like the quick-witted cynic so endlessly celebrated in light-hearted films about voluptuous women and international intrigue. In the long run, of course, cornball morality leads to rebellion and the loss of faith. (J.G.)
United States Department of Agriculture
Commercial Agriculture Development Project 2
Luctukiv Pereulok Maliv, Ukraine 25002 Tel/Fax: (380-02) 42-80-80 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
March 2, 2000
Harry Mead, USAID
19 Rubyy Val St.254 Kyi'v, Ukraine
Dear Mr. Walters,
I have discussed the issue of using funds allocated for wages, transportation, technical assistance, and other expenditures in the KNO Project for larger capital purchases for the four cooperatives with you and Ken Boyle and I am seeking formal approval to do this. I have also discussed this idea with the boards of the four cooperatives and they have agreed that this would be a better way to use the funds in the budget.
Artsis is working on a deal with Monsanto for no-till planting equipment. I agreed to make the down payment for that deal, which is $10,000.00. We have been working on this for a long time (it seems like forever) with CNFA and Monsanto. The payment has already been made to Monsanto.
I have already purchased seed treating equipment and two tractors for Ivanov Coop. They got the equipment from bankrupt collectives and got a very good deal on all of it. The seed treating equipment was still in crates and was purchased from Germany two years ago for $27,000.00. We got it all for $7,000.00. The Ivanov Coop will specialize in hailing, storing and selling seed. They got the two tractors from a bankrupt collective in Ivanovka for $3,000.00 and will provide a plowing service for their members this year.
John Wales USDA/CADP Odessa
I hear America singing
I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,
Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be
Blithe and strong,
The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam,
The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or
Leaves off work,
The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the
Deckhand singing on the steamboat deck,
The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter
Singing as he stands,
The wood-cutter's song, the ploughboy's on his way in the
Morning, or at noon intermission or at sundown,
The delicious singing of the mother, or of the young wife
At work, or of the girl sewing or washing,
Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else,
The day what belongs to the day - at night the party of
Young fellows, robust, friendly,
Singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs. (W.W.)
TOBACCO CAN HELP STOP THE HAIR LOSS FROM CANCER DRUGS
TOBACCO plants could be the key to allowing chemotherapy patients to keep their hair, writes Roger Dobson.
Biotechnologists have succeeded in getting the transgenic plants to grow an antibody that neutralises the hair-loss effects of the toxic chemicals used in cancer-fighting chemotherapy.
When a solution of the antibodies is rubbed into the hair and scalp before anti-cancer treatment begins, it protects and preserves the hair follicles from the aggressive toxins in the drug treatment. ( S. T.)
1. Разинкина Н.М. Функциальная стилистика. М.: Высшая школа, 2004
2. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика: Современный английский язык: учебник для вузов. – М.: Флинта: Наука, 2010.