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The smallest normal growth is 150sm and highest normal growth is 180sm in the world. By the reason of the gigantism, 180sm is no the highest growth. The highest man of the world is Sultan Kozen and his growth is 251sm. Kozen is from Turkey. If he lays his hands, his growth will be 3 m. The most interesting thing is his leg size is 61. So for this miracle Sultan had enter to “Guinness Records “. Sultan’s last opponent was inhabitant of China .But Chinese inhabitant died in 2010, so now the longest man of the world is Sultan Kozen.The longest man of Uzbekistan. Isroil Hushbekov is from Surkhandarya region, Ogchar village, was born in 1980 year.His growth is 247 sm.The smallest woman of the world is JyotAmge’s and her growth is 50sm. For gigantism and nanism there are many ills in the world. They can live many years as other people but they see much difficulty.

Reasons of gigantism:

  1. More producing somatotrop with changing function of hypophysis

  2. If we didn't treat as these illnesses: meningitis, ensifolitis

  3. Neyroinfections

  4. Poisons

Signs of gigantism:For men 200sm, for women 190sm growth is gigantism

Conclusion: in our country, there are also some illnesses of endocrine system. We know that future pharmacists are defenders of healthso they should learn reasons of several diseases and try to produce drugs for settling joyless results of endocrine diseases. Because every people want receive profit from the life and his heart will be glad, when he sees his baby’s slime and he can hope to his future!

AQUAPONICS

S. Kazokov -2nd -year -student The Tashkent pharmaceutical institute, Tashkent city Languages Chair Scientific tutor- F. Shirinova

The actuality: aquaponics is a combination of Aquaculture and Hydroponics. This means that fish and plants are grown in an integrated system, creating a symbiotic relationship between the two. An Aquaponic system uses the water from the fish tank to circulate through a grow bed where the plants are grown. Nitrifying bacteria convert fish wastes into plant-available nutrients. The plants use these nutrients as their main nutrient supply. The fish also benefit from this process, as the water is filtered by the plants, giving the fish clean water to live in.

The aim: aquaculture has the problem of buildup of wastes in the water, requiring filtering systems to clean the water as well as periodic releasing of waste water into the environment. Hydroponics uses chemical nutrients that eventually build up in the water and create toxic water. This water can no longer be used in the irrigation of the plants and is disposed of into the environment. Aquaponics takes both of these problems and turns them into solutions, as the waste in the water is used to feed the plants, therefore not requiring any chemical nutrients to be added to the system, and can have no pollution of the environment by either fish wastes or chemical pollutants. There is currently a great deal of interest in Australia about sustainable farming practices including water use, and the degradation of our soils and waterways. Aquaponics uses less water to produce the same amount of food as conventional agriculture, organic agriculture and hydroponics. As access to water is a critical factor for farming in any country, the use of Aquaponic systems with its low water requirement means that food can be produced in places that it would not normally be grown. Fish from the Aquaculture component of the Aquaponic system can be also harvested, providing fish in areas that do not have natural access to fish in their waterways. Aquaponics combined with a climate-controlled environment such as a greenhouse, can produce food year round. Another limiting factor for farmers worldwide is access to fertile soils capable of producing quality food. Aquaponics does not need any soils, therefore being able to be utilised almost anywhere in the world. Environmental Benefits. Reduced water use - with water being a scarce resource in Australia, it makes sense to use methods that reduce the amount of water used to produce the same amount of food. As the water from the fish tank is recirculated, the amount of water lost in the system is minimal. In conventional farming, the irrigation water is pumped out onto the land, only to be lost through evaporation, percolation or runoff. Reduced chemical use - the need for chemicals is reduced dramatically in an aquaponics system, as the nutrient is made available to the plants by the fish waste. The use of chemicals in an aquaponics system can be harmful to the fish, and can disrupt the natural interactions of the fish and their environment. Reduces erosion by eliminating the need to plough the soil - the problem of erosion in Australia is immense, with many acres of precious topsoil being lost to water and wind erosion every year, and our waterways experiencing silt build-up. Reduced running costs - the cost of running a conventional horticultural farm is huge with the cost of tractors and all the implements needed reaching into the $100's thousands. With Aquaponic systems, there is no ploughing or spraying, reducing the need for large tractors which use large amounts of diesel fuel, and also reducing the need for the farmer to spend alot of their money on synthetic chemicals.

Conclusion: Being exposed to chemicals is not good for us, yet we continue to use them to help growour food. The farmer has more exposure to these chemicals as they are physically handling them in preparation of spraying. The farmer is also exposed while spraying the liquid, especially if the wind blows it back into the direction of the farmer. The great thing about Aquaponics as a learning tool, is it also produces healthy, organic food for the family, all year round.

HEALTHY WAY OF LIFE

S.A. Urmanova -student of 3rd course
Tashkent pharmaceutical institute.Tashkent city
Languages chair


Scientific tutor: Taryanikova M.A

The actuality: nowadays our life is getting more and more tense. People live under the press of different problems, such as social, ecological, economic and others. A person should be strong and healthy in order to overcome all difficulties. To achieve this aim people ought to take care of their physical and mental health. In order to be healthy we should avoid bad habits that can affect our health. Smoking and drinking alcohol, are the worst ones. Smoking, for example, causes lung diseases, such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer, heart attacks and high blood pressure. Alcohol causes heart disease and brain damage. Regular exercise is an essential part of our life. A person who takes regular exercise will stay physically fit, vigorous and keep a youthful shape. Regular sleeping habits are also important. At night while we sleep our brain also processes and stores all the information learnt during the day.

The aim: life expectancy is increasing, but the life of modern man is still endangered by many factors, such as the increasing pollution of the environment, sedative lifestyle of the majority of the population, the quality of food and so on. The only possible way of preserving one's health is healthy way of life which includes keeping fit, balanced meals and giving up unhealthy habits. Physical fitness has become an integral part of many people's lives as they participate in sports and sports activities. A healthy diet contains reduced amounts of cholesterol, fat, sugar and salt and protects our body from a wide range of diseases.

Conclusion: in conclusion I would like to say that it’s easier to prevent a disease rather than try to cure if after you get sick. Scientists say that in the future people will live longer. With healthier lifestyles and better medical care the average person will live to 90 or 100 instead of 70 and 75 like today. Incurable diseases will be cured and "bad" genes replaced.

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD
M. Abdufattoyeva- 2nd - year - student
The Tashkent pharmaceutical institute, Tashkent city
Languages Chair


Supervisor: teacher N.S. Karimova

New 7 Wonders of the World was an initiative started in 2000 as a Millennium project to choose Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments.The popularity poll was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and organized by the New 7 Wonders Foundation based in Zurich, Switzerland, with winners announced on 7 July 2007 in Lisbon.The New 7 Wonders Foundation claimed that more than 100 million votes were cast through the Internet or by telephone. The American Society of Civil Engineers selected Seven Wonders of the Modern World, engineering marvels that exemplified the abilities of humans to construct amazing features on Earth. This article will guide you through these Seven Wonders of the Modern World.

The 105-foot-tall (38-meter-tall) "Christ the Redeemer" statue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was among the "new seven wonders of the world" announced July 7 following a global poll to decide a new list of human-made marvels.

Great Wall of China. This newly elected world wonder was built along China's northern border over many centuries to keep out invading Mongol tribes. Constructed between the fifth century B.C. and the 16th century, the Great Wall is the world's longest human-made structure, stretching some 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers).

The Colosseum, Rome, Italy. The only finalist from Europe to make it into the top seven—the Colosseum in Rome, Italy—once held up to 50,000 spectators who came to watch gory games involving gladiators, wild animals, and prisoners.

Petra, Jordan .Perched on the edge of the Arabian Desert, Petra was the capital of the Nabataean kingdom of King Aretas IV (9 B.C. to A.D. 40). Petra is famous for its many stone structures such as a 138-foot-tall (42-meter-tall) temple carved with classical facades into rose-colored rock. The ancient city also included tunnels, water chambers, and an amphitheater, which held 4,000 people.

Machu Picchu, Peru .One of three successful candidates from Latin America, Machu Picchu is a 15th-century mountain settlement in the Amazon region of Peru. The ruined city is among the best known remnants of the Inca civilization, which flourished in the Andes region of western South America. The city is thought to have been abandoned following an outbreak of deadly smallpox, a disease introduced in the 1500s by invading Spanish forces.

ChichenItza, Mexico .ChichenItza is possibly the most famous temple city of the Mayas, a preColumbian civilization that lived in present day Central America. It was the political and religious center of Maya civilization during the period from A.D. 750 to 1200. At the city's heart lies the Temple of Kukulkan —which rises to a height of 24 meters. Each of its four sides has 91 steps—one step for each day of the year, with the 365th day represented by the platform on the top.

Taj Mahal, India .The TajMahal, in Agra, India, is the spectacular mausoleum built by Muslim Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to honor the memory of his beloved late wife, MumtazMahal.

Construction began in 1632 and took about 15 years to complete. The opulent, domed mausoleum, which stands in formal walled gardens, is generally regarded as finest example of Mughal art and architecture. It includes four minarets, each more than 13 stories tall.

THE WAR ON MEDICINE

  1. V. Yusupova.student of 2nd course
    Tashkent pharmaceutical institute, Tashkent city
    Languages chair
    Scientific tutor: Raxmonova A.


The actuality: for nearly 100 years, there has been a serious war going on between the proponents of allopathic (conventional) medicine and those who support natural or functional medicine. Functional medicine in the form of herbal,1,2 Ayurvedic, and Chinese medicine was dominant around the world for hundreds of years.3-5 Then, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the germ theory6,7 of disease began to take over, along with technological advances such as x-rays,8 the electron microscope,9 and the use of antibiotics.10,11A new breed of medical school emerged to teach future doctors how to utilize these new diagnostic tools, medicines, and operating procedures to defeat the external invaders of the body. Doctors became thoroughly convinced that most diseases were caused by germs, bacteria, viruses, or rogue cells that needed to be cut out, killed, or controlled by these new medical breakthroughs.

The aim:the nonconventional medical model has been called many things over the past 50 years, including:

-Natural ,-Holistic, -Alternative, -Complementary, -Integrative, -Functional.

Integrative and complementary became the key names in the early 1990s as efforts were beginning to bring the two medicines together in order to better meet the needs of a confused and frustrated public.There are a few positive things to report on the conventional medicine front. In terms of acute care, there have been tremendous strides made in the technology related to operations. Surgery has become less invasive with higher rates of success for many operations.

Consclusion: however, there is still a problem related to the number of unnecessary operations being performed and prime examples include knee surgery, back surgery, angioplasty, and heart surgery. If unnecessary operations were eliminated, acute care could become the shining star for conventional medicine. While conventional medicine was acquiring a very dismal tack record on the treatment of chronic disease, the exact opposite pattern was emerging for holistic/functional medicine. Some example include the following:

-Alarge published in the British medical journal Lancet Oncology found that diet(plant-based), yoga ,meditation, and lifestyle changes increased the length of telomeres. Shorter telomere length has been associated with conditions such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and prostate cancer.

-The Institute of Medicine reported in the Wall Street Journal that a holistic approach the health care- which uses the best of conventional medicine along with alternative therapies like meditation ,yoga, acupuncture, and herbal medicines- has been scientifically documented to be medically effective.

-The book Nutritional Medicine has over 15,000 scientific references proving that healthy foods and nutritional supplements can prevent, and often reverse, nearly every chronic disease.

You will not solve the current healthcare crisis if you simply continue to do the wrong things better. ”



MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TURMERIC ARE KNOWN FROM DISTANT ANTIQUITY. IT
WAS CONSIDERED IN HINDUSTAN THAT BY MEANS OF TURMERIC IT IS POSSIBLE TO


CLEAN AN ORGANISM”

L. Erkinov -3rd year student
The Tashkent pharmaceutical institute, Tashkent city
Languages chair
Scientific tutor: Sh.R. Temirova.


The actuality: turmeric possesses the expressed anti inflammatory, antioxidant, bile-expelling and detoxication properties. Turmeric is even named a natural antibiotic that possesses certain advantages before medications, because does not assist worsening of the state of gastrointestinal tract, and also does not destroy on a liver. Vice versa, at the use in food of turmeric digestion gets better and activity of intestinal flora is normalized. Turmeric can bring an enormous benefit to the sick and weak organism. She is useful not only during illness but also as support of weak organism especially after intensifying of chronic diseases. It is considered that a turmeric clears and warms blood. And the most important ideally helps at illness cancer and perfectly clears a liver and takes away wrinkles and acne Cambodia, in Peru and in other places. Yet in the days of middle ages the Arabic merchants, wishing to surprise Europe, left a turmeric that was more often named the "Indian saffron" there. To date it is a very popular spiciness that in Europe is an especially favourite englishmen and Americans. Plant turmeric long-term, growing a to 2 m in high, with large oval leaves that grow straight from a root and are both light and dark green color. Stems and rhizomes of turmeric are rich in essential oils and contain yellow dye . From roots-tubers after the special treatment get an exotic spiciness is orange powder with a bright and strong aroma.

The aim: turmeric and her biological action : strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, detoxication, bile-expelling. In a turmeric there is a calcium, iron, phosphorus and iodine. Vitamins: With, In, To, В2, ВЗ. of Curcuma is a wonderful natural antibiotic. This quality does a turmeric medicine that does not worsen the state of gastrointestinal tract and does not destroy a liver. At the use of turmeric activity of intestinal flora rises and digestion gets better. Turmeric is irreplaceable support for a weak organism after chronic illness, and also during illness. Turmeric warms and clears blood.

Conclusion: turmeric is able to be of to the organism the enormous use. Properties of turmeric allow to her successfully to prevent a disease a diabetes mellitus and contest with obesity. Turmeric for the decline of weight : in composition drink for the decline of weight a turmeric assists strengthening of metabolism and decline of level of cholesterol in blood. Application of turmeric at arthritis: half of spoon of dry turmeric on portion of soup or stewed

FUTURE OF PHsAt RMACY

K. Salidjanova-the1st year student The Tashkent pharmaceutical institute, Tashkent city Languages chair Scientific tutor: Sh.R.Temirova.

Every day all over the world people create new modern technologies and improve them. Our lives depend on these technologies because it helps us in many ways. One of this ways is our health. In many countries an important place in their development takes improving of pharmacy. Specialists try to open new medicine, which will be less harmful for organism and try to find a drug for unknown diseases and treatment. For example, in Russia, USA and Japan pharmacists do everything possible to find a cure of AIDS and cancer.

There are more than 130 concerns in pharmaceutical branch in Uzbekistan. After becoming an independent country, Uzbekistan in short time can improve a manufacture of medicinal drugs and provide internal market- place with qualitative and inexpensive preparations. In independent days our republic had to create own industrial pharmacy practically from scratch. Our republic had to bring under not only new technologies of production but and made a strong base for teaching new highly skilled cadres. The result of these actions is that volume of production increase from 46,9 million sum to 256,7 billion sum. Our enterprises release 1 327 names of medicinal preparations to 90 pharmacotherapeutic groups and to 30 medicinal forms.

In our republic implement active work to increase export. In twelve countries all over the world register over 250 preparations of 15 our enterprises. Our production export to Azerbaijan, Armenia, Afghanistan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, India, Japanese, Russia and others.

Pharmacy germinated a long time ago, when people began to find remedies for curing their diseases. The first reference about drugstore as the place of keeping a medicine, we saw in Hippocrates’s manuscripts. Claudiy Gallen told about chemist shop not only such as the place of keeping a medicine and also for preparing medical drugs. First drugstores appeared in monastery in 1100 AD. Monks prepared medical cures and gave them to sick people. And only over 100 years in Venice began to open first municipal chemist shops. In 15 century AD we saw the term pharmacist which formed at Latin word “provisor”.

I think that in future it will be more and more drugs which help people with their health. The number of different disease increase every day and specialists try not to allow their occurrence. The problem of health increase every day and there are many diseases which threaten with humanity. That’s why we need more protection from the side of pharmacy and it’s activity.

HISTORY OF ANTIBIOTICS”



K. Toshniyozova -1st year student
The Tashkent pharmaceutical institute, Tashkent city
Languages chair
Scientific tutor: Sh.R.Temirova.


The actuality: the term "antibiotics" literally means "against life"; in this case. they can be loosely defined as the variety of substances derived from bacteria source (microorganisms) that control the growth of or kill other bacteria. Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type ofantimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Several antibiotics are also effective against fungi and protozoans, and some are toxic to humans and animals, even when given intherapeutic dosage. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza, and may be harmful when taken inappropriately.

The aim: antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century, and have together with vaccination led to the near eradication of diseases such as tuberculosis in the developed world. Their effectiveness and easy access led to overuse, especially in live-stock raising, prompting bacteria to develop resistance. This has led to widespread problems with antimicrobial andantibiotic resistance, so much as to prompt the World Health Organization to classify antimicrobial resistance as a "serious threat [that] is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country".The era of antibacterial chemotherapy began with the discovery of arsphenamine, first synthesized by Alfred

Bertheim and Paul Ehrlich in 1907, used to treat syphilis. The first systemically active antibiotic, prontosil was discovered in 1933 by Gerhard Domagk for which he was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize Sometimes the term antibiotic is used to refer to any substance used against microbes, synonymous to antimicrobial. Some sources distinguish between antibacterial and antibiotic;



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