II. Лироэпическая поэма. Типология жанра
1. Прочитайте поэму Дж.Г. Байрона «Гяур».
2. Прочитайте поэму А.С. Пушкина «Кавказский пленник».
3. Обратитесь к книгам В.М. Жирмунского. Выясните, по каким критериям возможно плодотворное сопоставление текстов двух поэм.
4. С какой целью поэты обращались к теме Востока?
Каковы функции восточной тематики в литературе XVIII века? В «Восточных повестях» Вольтера? В «Персидских письмах» Монтескье?
Природа Востока в изображении Байрона и Пушкина. Условность или заметки очевидца?
5. Что изменилось бы в произведениях, если бы их сюжеты были изложены прозой?
Что дает автору поэтический язык в изображении восточных традиций и нравов?
Как вы можете охарактеризовать общую тональность произведений?
Какие настроения удается передать поэтам?
Какую болезнь века запечатлевают поэты?
6. Понятие о романтическом герое:
особенности портрета, контраст как ведущий художественный принцип, перенос акцентов на внутреннее состояние персонажа.
7. Какова роль лирических отступлений в поэмах?
8. Какие черты эпоса развивает лироэпическая поэма?
9. Можно ли в поэмах выделить отдельные лирические и эпические эпизоды?
10. Попробуйте дать определение жанру лироэпической поэмы.
См. литературу к лекции III.
Функции детских образов в творчестве Ч. Диккенса
Почему тема детства оказывается привлекательной для Ч. Диккенса и становится сквозной в его творчестве?
Ч. Диккенс и его детские впечатления.
Ч. Диккенс — член правительственной комиссии по изучению вопроса народного образования.
Ч. Диккенс — глава многодетного семейства.
2. Ч. Диккенс дает художественные примеры двух сложившихся отношений к ребенку:
как к существу греховному, которое следует социализировать;
как к существу, еще не выделенному из мира природы, близко стоящему к Богу.
Приведите примеры каждого из них.
С каким жанром соотносима каждая из точек зрения?
3. Как проявляют себя персонажи Ч. Диккенса в отношении к детям?
Как их характеризует это отношение? Можно ли выделить при этом особые группы персонажей, сходных в их отношении к детям?
4. С какими воспитательными принципами в каких жанрах знакомит Ч. Диккенс своих читателей?
5. Какие проблемы общественной жизни, волновавшие Ч. Диккенса, оказались художественно воплощенными в его произведениях благодаря введению детских образов? Соотношение проблемы и жанра.
6. Всегда ли в судьбах маленьких героев Ч. Диккенса соблюдается принцип «счастливого финала»? Почему?
Типы финалов и жанровые модификации прозы Ч. Диккенса.
Сравните позицию Ч. Диккенса с творческими принципами Г.Х. Андерсена, с которым писатель был дружен.
Определите жанровое своеобразие творчества каждого писателя.
1. Рождественская песнь в прозе.
2. Приключения Оливера Твиста.
3. Торговая фирма «Домби и сын».
4. Тяжелые времена.
5. Большие надежды.
IV. Детская английская литература
1. Привлекательность детскости. Интерес и внимание к детской точке зрения во взгляде на мир в английской литературе середины XIX века.
2. Появление литературы абсурда как реакции на викторианство. Соотношение понятий нонсенс, абсурд, парадокс, экстравагантность.
3. Своеобразие восприятия пространства и времени в литературе для детей.
4. Жанр лимериков в творчестве Эдварда Лира.
5. Традиции детской литературы рубежа XIX—XX веков.
6. Своеобразие поэтики, тем и образов детской английской литературы XX века.
Какие черты детской логики запечатлевает А. Милн?
Постарайтесь определить авторское отношение к ребенку, его взгляду на мир и возрастным особенностям мышления.
IN WHICH WE ARE INTRODUCED TO WINNIE-THE-POOH AND SOME BEES, AND THE STORIES BEGIN
Here is Edward Bear, coming downstairs now, bump, bump, bump, on the back of his head, behind Christopher Robin. It is, as far as he knows, the only way of coming downstairs, but sometimes he feels that there really is another way, if only he could stop bumping for a moment and think of it. And then he feels that perhaps there isn't. Anyhow, here he is at the bottom, and ready to be introduced to you. Winnie-the-Pooh.
When I first heard his name, I said, just as you are going to say, "But I thought he was a boy?"
"So did I," said Christopher Robin.
"Then you can't call him Winnie?"
"But you said ———"
"He's Wihnie-ther-Pooh. Don't you know what 'ther' means?" "Ah, yes, now I do," I said quickly; and I hope you do too, because it is all the explanation you are going to get.
Once upon a time, a very long time ago now, about last Friday, Winnie-the-Pooh lived in a forest all by himself under the name of Sanders.
("What does 'under the name' mean? asked Christopher Robin.
"It means he had the name over the door in gold letters, and lived under it."
"Winnie-the-Pooh wasn't quite sure," said Christopher Robin.
"Now I am, " said a growlу voice.
"Then I will go on," said I.)
IN WHICH PIGLET MEETS A HEFFALUMP
One day, when Christopher Robin and Winnie-the-Pooh and Piglet were all talking together, Christopher Robin finished the mouthful he was eating and said carelessly: "I saw a Heffalump today. Piglet."
"What was it doing?" asked Piglet.
"Just lumping along," said Christopher Robin. "I don't think it saw me."
"I saw one once," said Piglet. "At least, I think I did," he said. "Only perhaps it wasn't."
"So did I," said Pooh, wondering what a Heffalump was like.
"You don't often see them," said Christopher Robin carelessly.
"Not now," said Piglet.
"Not at this time of year," said Pooh.
Then they all talked about something else, until it was time for Pooh and Piglet to go home together. At first as they stumped along the path which edged the Hundred Acre Wood, they didn't say much to each other; but when they came to the stream and had helped each other across the stepping stones, and were able to walk side by side again over the heather, they began to talk in a friendly way about this and that, and Piglet said, "If you see what I mean, Pooh," and Pooh said, "It's just what I think myself. Piglet", and Piglet said, "But, on the other hand, Pooh, we must remember," and Pooh said, "Quite true, Piglet, although I had forgotten it for the moment." And then, just as they came to the Six Pine Trees, Pooh looked round to see that nobody else was listening, and said in a very solemn voice:
"Piglet, I have decided something."
"What have you decided. Pooh?" "I have decided to catch a Heffalump."
Pooh's first idea was that they should dig a Very Deep Pit, and the Heffalump would come along and fall into the Pit, and —
"Why?" said Piglet.
"Why what?" said Pooh.
"Why would he fall in?"
Pooh rubbed his nose with his paw, and said that the Heffalump might be walking along, humming a little song, and looking up at the sky, wondering if it would rain, and so he wouldn't see the Very Deep Pit until he was half-way down, when it would be too late.
But there was just one other thing which had to be thought about, and it was this. Where should they dig the Very Deep Pit?
Piglet said that the best place would be somewhere where a Heffalump was, just before he fell into it, only about a foot farther on.
"But then he would see us digging it," said Pooh.
"Not if he was looking at the sky."
"He would Suspect," said Pooh, "if he happened to look down." He thought for a long time and then added sadly, "It isn't as easy as I thought. I suppose that's why Heffalumps hardly ever get caught."
"And we meet at six o'clock to-morrow morning by the Pine Trees, and see how many Heffalumps we've got in our Trap." "Six o'clock, Piglet. And have you got any string?" "No. Why do you want string?" "To lead them home with."
"Oh!... I think Heffalumps come if you whistle." "Some do and some don't. You never can tell with Heffalumps."
PETER PAN AND WENDY
1. PETER BREAKS THROUGH
Mrs. Darling first heard of Peter when she was tidying up her children's minds. It is the nightly custom of every good mother after her children are asleep to rummage in their minds and put things straight for next morning, repacking into their proper places the many articles that have wandered during the day. If you could keep awake (but of course you can't) you would see your own mother doing this, and you would find it very interesting to watch her. It is quite like tidying up drawers. You would see her on her knees, I expect, lingering humorously over some of your contents, wondering where on earth you had picked this thing up, making discoveries sweet and not so sweet, pressing this to her cheek as if it were as nice as a kitten, and hurriedly stowing that out of sight. When you wake in the morning, the naughtiness and evil passions with which you went to bed have been folded up small and placed at the bottom of your mind; and on the top, beautifully aired, are spread out your prettier thoughts, ready for you to put on.
I don't know whether you have ever seen a map of a person's mind. Doctors sometimes draw maps of other parts of you, and your own map can become intensely interesting, but catch them trying to draw a map of a child's mind, which is not only confused, but keeps going round all the time. There are zigzag lines on it, just like your temperature on a card, and these are probably roads in the island; for the Neverland is always more or less an island, with astonishing splashes of colour here and there, and coral reefs and rakish-looking craft in the offing, and savages and lonely lairs, and gnomes who are mostly tailors, and caves through which a river runs, and princes with six elder brothers, and a hut fast going to decay, and one very small old lady with a hooked nose. It would be an easy map if that were all; but there is also first day at school, religion, fathers, the round pond, needlework, murders, hangings, verbs that take the dative, chocolate-pudding day, getting into braces, say ninety-nine, threepence for pulling out your tooth yourself, and so on; and either these are part of the island or they are another map showing through, and it is all rather confusing, especially as nothing will stand still.
3. COME AWAY, COME AWAY!
She (Wendy) asked where he lived.
"Second to the right," said Peter "and then straight on till the morning."
"What a funny address!"
Peter had a sinking. For the first time he felt that perhaps it was a funny address.
"No, it isn't," he said.
"I mean," Wendy said nicely, remembering that she was hostess, "is that what they put on the letters?"
He wished she had not mentioned letters.
"Don't get any letters," he said contemptuously.
"But your mother gets letters?"
"Don't have a mother," he said. Not only had he no mother, but he had not the slightest desire to have one. He thought them very over-rated persons. Wendy, however, felt at once that she was in the presence of a tragedy.
"Wendy, I ran away the day I was born."
Wendy was quite surprised, but interested; and she indicated in the charming drawing-room manner, by a touch on her night-gown, that he could sit nearer her.
"It was because I heard father and mother," he explained in a low voice, "talking about what I was to be when I became a man." He was extraordinarily agitated now. "I don't want ever to be a man," he said with passion. "I want always to be a little boy and to have fun. So I ran away to Kensington Gardens and lived a long long time among the fairies."
She gave him a look of the most intense admiration, and he thought it was because he had run away, but it was really because he knew fairies. Wendy had lived such a home life that to know fairies struck her as quite delightful. She poured out questions about them, to his surprise, for they were rather a nuisance to him, getting in his way and so on, and indeed he sometimes had to give them a hiding. Still, he liked them on the whole, and he told her about the beginning of faries.
"You see, Wendy, when the first baby laughed for the first time, its laugh broke into a thousand pieces, and they all went skipping about, and that was the beginning of fairies."
Tedious talk this, but being a stay-at-home she liked it.
"And so," he went on good-naturedly, "there ought to be one fairy for every boy and girl."
"Ought to be? Isn't there?"
"No. You see, children know such a lot now, they soon don't believe in fairies, and every time a child says, 'I don't believe in fairies,' there is a fairy somewhere that falls down dead."
ALICE IN WONDERLAND THROUGH THE LOOKING-GLASS
"... There are three hundred and sixty-four days when you might get un-birthday presents" —
"Certainly," said Alice.
"And only one for birthday presents, you know. There's glory for you!"
"I don't know what you mean by 'glory,' " Alice said.
Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. "Of course you don't — till I tell you. I meant 'there's a nice knock-down argument for you!' "
"But 'glory' doesn't mean 'a nice knock-down argument,' " Alice objected.
"When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean — neither more nor less."
"The question is," said Alice, "whether you can make words mean different things."
"The question is," said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master — that's all."
Alice was too much puzzled to say anything, so after a minute Humpty Dumpty began again. "They've a temper, some of them — particularly verbs, they're the proudest — adjectives you can do anything with, but not verbs — however, I can manage the whole lot! Impenetrability! That's what /say!"
"Would you tell me, please," said Alice, "what that meanse?"
"Now you talk like a reasonable child," said Humpty Dumpty, looking very much pleased. "I meant by 'impenetrability' that we've had enough of that subject, and it would be just as well if you'd mention what you mean to do next, as I suppose you don't intend to stop here all the rest of your life."
"That's a great deal to make one word mean," Alice said in a thoughtful tone.
"When I make a word do a lot of work like that," said Humpty Dumpty, "I always pay it extra."
"Oh!" said Alice. She was too much puzzled to make any other remark.
"Ah, you should see 'em come round me of a Saturday night," Humpty Dumpty went on, wagging his head gravely from side to side: "for to get their wages, you know."
(Alice didn't venture to ask what he paid them with; and so you see I can't tell you.)
"You seem very clever at explaining words, Sir," said Alice. "Would you kindly tell me meaning of the poem 'Jabberwocky'?"
"Let's hear it," said Humpty Dumpty. "I can explain all the poems that ever were invented — and a good many that haven't been invented just yet."
This sounded very hopeful, so Alice repeated the first verse:
"'Twas brilling, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe."
"That's enough to begin with," Humpty Dumpty interrupted: "there are plenty of hard words there. 'Brilling' means four o'clock in the afternoon — the time when you begin broiling things for dinner."
"That'll do very well," said Alice: "and 'slithy'?"
"Well, 'slithy' means 'lithe and smily.' 'Lithe' is the same as 'active.' You see it's like a portmanteau — there are two meanings packed up into one word."
"I see it now," Alice remarked thoughtfully: "and what are 'toves'?"
"Well, 'toves' are something like badgers — they're something like lizards — and they're something like corkscrews."
"They must be very curious creatures."
"They are that," said Humpty Dumpty: "also they make their nests under sundials — also they live on cheese."
"And what's to 'gyre' and to 'gimble'?"
"To 'gyre' is to go round and round like gyroscope. To 'gimble' is to make holes like a gimlet."
"And 'the wabe' is the grass plot round a sundial, I suppose?" said Alice, surprised at her own ingenuity.
"Of course it is. It's called 'wabe,' you know, because it goes a long way before it, and a long way behind it —"
"And a long way beyond it on each side," Alice added.
"Exactly so. Well then, 'mimsy' is 'flimsy and miserable' (there's another portmanteau for you). And a 'borogove' is a thin shabby-looking bird with its feathers sticking out all round — something like a live mop."
"And then 'mome raths'?" said Alice. "If I'm not giving you too much trouble."
"Well, a 'rath' is a sort of green pig: but 'mome' I'm not certain about. I think it's short for 'from home' — meaning that they'd lost their way, you know."
"And what does 'outgrabe' mean?"
"Well, 'outgribing' is something between bellowing and whistling with a kind of sneeze in the middle: however, you'll hear it done, maybe — down in the wood yonder — and when you've once heard it you'll be quite content. Who's been repeating all that hard stuff to you?"
"I read it in a book," said Alice.