Черноземова Е. Н. История английской литературы: Планы. Разработки. Материалы. Задания. 2-е изд., испр




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VI. Эвфуистический стиль и ранний Шекспир

Задания:


I.

1. Прочитайте отрывок из романа Джона Лили «Эвфуэс».

2. Найдите части фраз с одинаковым синтаксическим пост­роением.

3. Как по-вашему, для чего автор использует синтаксичес­кий параллелизм?



4. Можно ли передать содержание отрывка более простым слогом? Какие при этом происходят изменения?
EUPHUES: THE ANATOMY OF WYT
There dwelt in Athens a young gentleman of great patrimonie, and of so comely a personage, that it was doubted whether he were more bound to Nature for the liniaments of his person, or to fortune for the encrease of his possessions. But Nature impatient of comparisons, and as it were disdaining a companion, or copartner in hir working, added to this comlinesse of his body suche a sharpe capacitie of minde, that not onely shee proued Fortune counterfaite, but was haife of that opinion that she hir seife was onely currant. This younge gallant, of more wit then wealth, and yet of more wealth then wisdome, seeing himseife inferiour to none in pleasant concei pts, thought himselfe superiour to al in honest conditions, insomuch yt he deemed himselfe so apt to all things, that he gaue himselfe almost to nothing, but practising of those things comonly which areincident to these sharp wits,fine phrases,smoth quipping, merry taunting, vsing iesting without meane, and abusing mirth without measure. As therefore the sweetest Rose hath his prickel, the finest veluet his brack, the fairest flowre his bran, so the sharpest witte hath his wanton will, and the holiest heade his wicked waye. And true it is that some men write and most men beleeue, that in all perfecte shapes, a blemmish bringeth rather a liking euery way to the eyes, then a loathing any waye to the minde. Venus had hir Mole in hir cheeke which made hir more amiable: Helen hir scarre on hir chinne which Paris called Cos amoris, the Whetstone of loue. Aristippus his wart, Lycurgus his wenne: So likewise in the disposition of ye minde, either vertue is ouershadowed with some vice, or vice ouercast with some vertue. Alexander valiaunt in warre, yet gyuen to wine. Tullie eloquent in his gloses, yet vayneglorious: Salomon wyse, yet to too wanton: Dauid holye but yet an homicide: none more wittie then Euphues, yet at the first none more wicked. The freshest colours soonest fade, the teenest Rasor soonest tourneth his edge, the finest cloathe is soonest eaten wyth Moathes, and the Cambricke sooner stained then the course Canuas: whiche appeared well in this Euphues, whose witte beeinge lyke waxe apte to receiue any impression, and hauinge the bridle in hys owne handes, either to vse the raine or the spurre, disdayning counsayle, leauinge his countrey, loathinge his olde acquaintance, thought either by wytte to obteyne some conquest, or by shame to abyde some conflicte, and leaning the rule of reason, rashly ranne vnto destruction. [ who preferring fancy before friends, and his present humour, before honour to come, laid reaso in water being to salt for his tast, and followed vnbrideled affection, most pleasant for his tooth. When parents haue more care how to leaue their childre wealthy the wise, and are more desirous to haue them mainteine the name, then the nature of a gentleman: when they put gold into the hands of youth, where they should put a rod vnder their gyrdle, when in steed of awe they make them past grace, and leaue them rich executors of goods, and poore executors of godlynes, then is it no meruaile, yt the son being left rich by his fathers Will, become retchles by his owne will. But ]

It hath bene an olde an sayed sawe, and not of lesse truth then antiquitie, that witte is the better if it bee the deerer bought.


II.

1. Прочитайте начальные строки монолога короля Наварры, Фердинанда, открывающего комедию Шекспира «Бесплодные усилия любви».

2. Какие ключевые слова Возрождения в них встречаются? (См. установку к лекции VIII.)

3. Что думает Фердинанд о Славе, Чести и Вечности?

4. Что вы можете сказать о стиле его речи?


  1. Какие жанровые установки создает вступительный моно­лог Фердинанда и его первая часть?

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST (I, 1)

Let fame, that all hunt after in their lives,

Live regester'd upon our brazen tombs,

And then grace us in the disgrace of death;

When, spite of cormorant devouring

Time, The endeavour of this present breath may buy 5

That honour which shall bate his scythe's keen edge,

And make us heirs of all eternity. 9


III.

1. Прочитайте слова Бирона, звучащие в ответ на решение короля Фердинанда посвятить три года учению и вести при этом самый аскетический образ жизни, в том числе избегать женщин.

2. Как влияет адресат высказывания на способ его выра­жения?
Berowne:

I will swear to study so,

To know the thing I am forbid to know; 60

As thus: to study where I well may dine,

When I to feast expressly am forbid;

Or study where to meet some mistress fine,

When mistresses from common sense are hid;

Or, having sworn too hard-a-keeping oath,

Study to break it, and not break my troth,

If study's gain be thus, and this be so,

Study knows that which yet it doth not know.

Swear me to this, and I will ne'er say no.

IV.

1. Прочитайте «Эпитафию на смерть оленя, убитого прин­цессой», написанную учителем Олоферном.



2. Насколько в ней выдержан жанр? Какие есть жанровые нарушения?

3. Какие взаимоисключающие задачи ставит перед собой ав­тор Эпитафии?


Holofernes (IV, 2):

...to humour the ignorant, I have call'd the deer the princess kiled,

a pricket. 53

The preyful princess pierc'd and prick'd a pretty pleasing pricket;

Some say a sore; but not a sore, till now made sore with shooting.

The dogs did yell; put L to sore, then sorel jumps from thicket; 60

Or pricket, sore, or else sorel; the people fall a hooting.

If sore be sore, then L to sore makes fifty sores one sorel!

Of one sore I a hundred make, by adding but one more L. 63
V.

1. Прочитайте размышления Олоферна о природе таланта.

2. Что вы можете сказать о персонаже по его высказыванию?

3. Что в структуре высказывания заставляет вас именно так отнестись к персонажу?


Holofernes (IV, 2):

This is a gift that I have, simple, simple; a foolish extravagant spirit, full of forms, figures, shapes, objects, ideas, apprehensions, motions, revolutions: these are begot in the ventricle of memory, nourished in the womb of pia mater, and delivered upon the mellowing of occasion. But the gift is good in those in whom it is acute, and I am thankful for it. 74


VI.

1. Согласны ли вы с мнением о том, что Шекспир на ран­нем этапе творчества прошел школу эвфуистического письма, от которого отказался впоследствии?

2. Можно ли считать раннего Шекспира мастером слова, разнообразно и творчески пользующимся эвфуистической манерой для решения многочисленных жанрово-стилистических задач?

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