А агонистическое поведение agonistic behaviour




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классическая многофункциональная ~~ all-purpose territory of A-type

брачная ~ mating territory

владелец ~ territory-holder, territory-owner

временная на путях миграций temporary (feeding) territory

вторгаться на ~ intrude into territory

All they do is fight each other, and intrude into each others territories. Owner postures, rushs up to strangers when these trespass (пересекают) its range.



вытеснять с ~ evict from territory

A newcomer manifested maximum self-assurance upon arrival, and even evicted the resident male from the central part of his territory in the course of the first day.



гнездовая ~ breeding territory, nesting territory

групповая ~ group territory

занятие ~ acquisition of territory, territory-establishment, settling within territory

Once the female has settled on a territory, she begins actively to defend its boundaries against all other conspecific females.



зимняя winter territory

компактно размещённые ~ cluster of territories (см. также колония, ток)

кормовая ~ feeding territory

неперекрывающиеся ~ мн. nonoverlapping territories

Clusters composed of 10–12 nesting territories are separated by rather large areas that remain unoccupied.



охрана границ ~ guarding territory borders, patrolling territory boundaries

пребывать на ~ occupy territory, stay on territory

Some pairs may remain on their nesting territories after breeding, staying until the autumn or perhaps even until the following spring.



cмена ~ shift location of territory

удерживать ~ за собой hold territory, keep territory

центр ~ core area

территория природная охраняемая conservation area, protected area,

natural protection area, reserved area см. также заповедник

Area protected from being exploited.

задача сохранить места размножения aim to secure suitable breeding sites

попытки увеличить ~ activities to expand this protection area

сохранение ~ preservation of (small, large) area

ток (токовище) arena, lek, lekking ground

There was a meeting place where ten males and two females were pesent. The space was four to five feet in diameter, and appeared to have been cleared of every blade of grass and smoothed as if by human hands.



~ как «горячая точка» arena as a hot spot

выбор самкой самца по месту расположения его территории place-dependent choosing by female among competing males

дифференциальный репродуктивный успех самцов differential reproductive succes of males

конкуренция самцов за участие в репродукции intermale competition for participating in reproduction

посещение ~ самками visits to arena by females

присутствовать на индивидуальной территории be in attendance

самцы центральные central males

самцы периферические peripheral males

самцы сателлиты sayellite males

функциональный центр индивидуальной территории focal point

The focal point within a territory is the terrestrial dancing stage. The locations of the individual stages seem to be governed by the distributon of thin saplings and vines which serves as approach perches.



токование displays, lekking, lekking displays

The effect of these displays is to prevent strange males from crossing the periphery into the main display arena except for very brief interval.



тормозить brake (напр. крыльями в полете) см. подавлять, препятствовать

третировать harass

Pied wheatears is constantly harassed by individuals of all other wheatear species.



тропа trail, path, run

path led along beaches and on cattle trails

trail led through (вела через ) forest

натоптанная тропа ~ trampled path

тундра tundra

In the Old World the word generally used is tundra, a term originating from the Finnish word tunturi meaning a treeless plain. The tundra everywhere is dotted with lakes, transected by small streams and covered with low heath, although in more sheltered places and along river courses and lake shores there are rather high shrub. Where the ground is moist extensive bogs exist, while in the driest parts and in places that are particularly exposed to the wind or where soil is very poor and scanty,the vegetation does not form a continuous cover and the plants are scattered, so that the bare underground is the dominant feature of the landscape.


У

убегать flee, run away, escape

Young Loggerhead Shrikes that spread their wings when confronting a mouse may have better balance, and spread wings may stimulate the mouse to flee, thereby exposing the back of its neck to attack.



убежище shelter, refuge, refugium, covert, retreat

убирать take in см. устранять

уборная (у млекопитающих) latrine

Thus, latrines may function as scent-marking stations and play a role in delaying conspecifics from entering the territory. We suggest that the olfactory channel of communication enables mole-rats to mark their territorial borders with a relatively long-lasting signal, inhibiting the entry of potential intruders.



увеличение increase; augmentation, enhancement, enlargement;

угасание extinction, decline

~ активности waning of activity

~ реакции response decrement

удар stroke, beat, blow

наносить ~ blow, butt (головой, рогами), strike, deliver

Fighting is done by delivering vigorous pecks (клевки) usually from above.



узнавать recognize

~ индивидуально recognize individually

упадок decline, decay

идти к ~ go into a decline

находиться в ~ on the decline

претерпевать ~ suffer a decline

приходить в ~decline, wane, diminish

условие condition

при ~ (если только; в том случае, если) conj providing, provided, if

Habit of anchoring the victim corpse would yield a selective advantage providing that it improves the birds ability to exploit large prey.



условия conditions

In the low-arctic region, as compared to high Arctic, conditions are somewhat mitigates.

A summertime is more extended and milder, with a July mean between 15 and 200C.

Near the limit of existence trees can grow only under especially favorable conditions, and are therefore restricted to valleys of rivers, south-facing and well-drained slopes, sheltered de­pressions or calcareous soil.



неприемлемые ~ nonpermissive conditions

приемлемые ~ permissive conditions

регулируемые ~ managed conditions

экстремальные ~ extreme conditions, extremal conditions

успех success

~ размножения см. репродуктивный успех

~ спаривания mating success

устанавливать establish

In such a situation, the two rivals may be involved in a brief conflict during which the new agreed border between the territories of the competing males is established.

In a state of high excitement, these neighbours tend to ignore established boundaries and intrude into the territory of the male who is actively courting the female.

устранение removal; elimination; abatement

устранять remove

усыновление adoption

ухаживание courtship, courtship behaviour

~ одновременное в группе communal courtship

ухаживать (за самкой) court (female)

уходить go off, get away, escape

~ в нору take the earth

~ ретируясь withdraw

ухудшение degradation, deterioration; aggravation

участвовать participate

The male does not participate in nest-building.



участок обитания home range, range (см. также территория, перемещения, след).

His range was confined to the Rush Creek drainage.

The actual area occupied was probably greater than that indicated in Fig. 1.

I believe the actual areas utilized by some lions extend beyond that indicated .

The winter range was on lower Big Creek and downstream on the Middle Fork. Its extent is not known.

Her distinctive track, noted during previous years, revealed that she had been in the area since the study began.

Females No 10,11, and 12 reside in the same range as male No 1.

I do believe, however, that territories relative to each over are properly depicted by the capture data.

All females studied appeared to change the extent of their ranges in different winter seasons. The changes were correlated with females reproductive status.

When alone, a female does not need to utilize a large area, but when accompanied by kittens, the demands of the family for food dictate that she utilize a larger hunting area.

Female No 4, accompanied by the three approximately 7 to 8 month-old kittens, confined herself to the eastern portion of the range.

In 1998, still accompanied by the three kittens (now 18 to 22 months old), she utilized only about one-third of the previous years range.

Thus a larger area is required a female reproductive status, and the age and number of her offspring dictate the extent of her seasonal range. The range area is limited by the ability of young to travel great distances.

Individual ranges were determined by plotting outlying points of observations.

Each boulder-field supported one to three pair(s), which appeared to occupy broadly overlapping home ranges, rather than strictly defended territories.

учёт inventory, census, record

~ птиц bird count, bird census

~ численности census

абсолютный ~ численности true census

ущелье donga, gorge, ravine

~ с лесом по верхнему урезу forest-fringed gorge
Ф

фактор factor, agent

~ в действии factor in operation, factor is operating

главный ~ main factor, primary factor

первичный ~ см. факторы эволюции

факторы эволюции evolutionary factors

как исходная (конечная) причина ultimate cause

как непосредственная (ближайшая) причина proximate cause

фаунистическая область (зоогеографическая область) faunistic region, zoogeographical region

Австралийская ~ Australian region

Антарктическая ~ Antarctic region

Голарктическая (Палеарктическая + Неарктическая) ~ Holarctic region

Индо-Малайская ~ Oriental region

Неарктическая (Северная Америка) ~ Nearctic region

Неотропическая ~ Neotropical region

Палеарктическая ~ Palaearctic region

Эфиопская ~ Ethiopian region, Afrotropical region

фаунистическое царство faunistic realm

Метагея Metagea (Holarctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian regions)

Неогея Neogea (Neotropical region)

Нотогея Notogea (Australian region)

феномен phenomenon pl phenomena

~ «бутылочного горлышка» см. «бутылочного горлышка» феномен

фенотип m phenotype

носитель ~ phenotype bearer

фиксация добычи (хищником) anchoring

~ зажимание (напр., в развилке ветви) vedging

~ запихивание в щель pulling into

The shrike discovered that a mouse could be pulled into one of these slits

and anchored there, so that small bits could be torn off and eaten.

~ накалывание impaling

фиксированная схема действий fixed action pattern

аппетентная фаза ~ appetitive behaviour

завершающая (консумматорная) фаза ~ consummatory behaviour

механизм, снимающий блокировку консумматорного акта innate releasing mechanism

фиксировать fix

филопатрия phylopatry

натальная ~ natal phylopatry

фонд resources

генетический ~ gene pool

функция function

служить ~ serve function
Х

характер character, mode, pattern

~ активности pattern of activity

~ поведения behaviour pattern

~ распространения distributional pattern

характеризовать (служить отличительным признаком) characterize, distinguish

характеристика characteristic

характерный a characteristic

~ для characteristic of

~ особенность characteristic feature

хищнический predatiory, carnivorous, raptorial

~ агрессия predatiory aggression

хищническое поведение predatory behaviour

затаиваться to halt, still concealed by the undergrowth (подлесок)

калечить жертву to snap and tear at it with crippling bites (травмирующие укусы)

нападать to rush (furiously toward the prey)

останавливать жертву to slow (it) down

поедать жертву to teari it apart, starting at the loins (поясница, филейная часть)

and anal region



подкрадываться (близко) to sneak as close to (it) as possible

подстерегать to lies in wait, preparing for the killing

пытаться повалить жертву to try to get (it) to the ground

пытаться схватить жертву to try for a grip on the snout (за морду) of the victim

сдерживать жертву to pull (it) down

individual methods of hunting ensure greater success per bird than group attack



хищничество predation, predatism, carnivorism; depredation

воздействие его на популяцию жертвы effect of hyaena predation on (any prey population)

to assess (чтобы оценить) the impact (воздействие) of lion on big-game animals...

number of prey eaten per year (ежегодно) by the whole population of predator

ate yearly (ежегодно) a similar proportion of x population

the number of calves taken as predator food

short-term increases (краткосрочное увеличение) in killing rate (нагрузки на жертв)

ходить go, walk

подходить близко walk up to, approach

ходьба walking

при ~, во время ~ in walking, while walking

холм hill см. также ландшафт, рельеф

среди известковых ~ in the limestone hills

холмик (бугор) m knoll
Ц

царство kingdom

~ грибов fungi kingdom, fungus kingdom (Fungi)

~ животных animal kingdom (Animalia)

~ прокариот см.

~ простейших protozoan kingdom (Protista)

~ растений plant kingdom (Plantae)

цевка tarso-metatarsus (tarsus)

целенаправленность purposiveness

целенаправленный purposeful

цель goal, aim; purpose

ценный of value

адаптивно ~ of adaptive value

центробежный centrifugal

центростремительный axipetal, centripetal, afferent

цепная реакция chain response, chain behaviour sequence

цианобактерии blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria (Cyanobacteria, Cyanophyta)

строматолиты stromatolites

цикл репродуктивный ~ breeding cycle, reproductive cycle, genesial cycle

попытка размножения breeding attempt

Most Black Wheatear pairs tend to make repeated breeding attempts during the season.



сезонный ~ seasonal breeding cycle
чинк escarpment, jebel

численность number, abundance

~ вида number of species, abundance of species

~ класса class frequency

сокращение ~ популяции population decline

Population is dwindling in number



чувствительный sensitive

~ период sensitive period
Ш

широта latitude

Yenisey valley lies between 63 and 70N



шкура hide, skin, pelt

станция заготовки ~ pelts purveying station
Э

экземпляр specimen

гербарный ~ herbarium specimen

музейный museum specimen

спиртовой ~ spirit specimen

~ тушки (птицы, млекопитающего) skin

экскременты excrements, faeces

~ птенцов птиц fecal-sacs

экскреция excretion

экспозиция exposure

because of the relief and exposure



элекромагнетизм electromagnetic sense

комуникация электромагнитная electromagnetic communication

ориентация электромагнитная electromagnetic orientation



рыбы сильноэлектрические strongly electric fishes

рыбы слабоэлектрические weakly electric fishes

рыбы электрочувствительные electrosensitive fishes

элиминация elimination

неизбирательная ~ nonselective elimination

эон eon, eonothem

Криптозой (Докембрий) Precambrian Eon

Фанерозой Phanerozoic Eon

эпоха геохронологическая epoch, series

Голоцен Holocene

Миоцен Miocene

Олигоцен Oligocene

Палеоцен Paleocene

Плейстоцен Pleistocene

Плиоцен Pliocene

Эоцен Eocene



эра геохронологическая era, erathem

Архейская ~ Arcgaean Era

Кайнозойская ~ Cenozoic Era
Мезозойская ~ Mesozoic Era
Палеозойская ~ Paleozoic Era

Протерозойская ~ Proterozoic era

эрозионный erosional

ландшафт ~ erosional landscape

In the abiotic environment rocks, boulders talus slopes (каменистые осыпи) and erosion dongas (ущелья) provide breeding facilities for a considerable number of species.



Cave Sanstone beds of the Little Berg outcrop as cliffs at 1700-1800 m, below which is grassy slopes and boulder-fields formed by erosion of the Cave Sandstone belt.

эрозия erosion

подверженный ~ succeptible to erosion

этограмма ethogram

этология ethology

классическая ~ classical

когнитивная ~ cognitive

сравнительная ~ comparative

этоэкология behavioural ecology

эукариоты, эвкариоты (простейшие, грибы, растения, животные) eukaryotes

эффект effect (of )

~ беспокойства natcons disturbance effect

~ основателя см. основателя эффект

~ «растворения» (укрытия в группе) dilution effect, confusion effect

конечный ~ final effect

косвенный ~ indirect effect

краткосрочный ~ short-term effect

неблагоприятный ~ adverse effect, harmful effect

необратимый ~ irreversible effect

отдалённый ~ delayed action

парадоксальный ~ paradoxical effect

парниковый ~ greenhouse effect, hothouse effect

побочный ~ side-effect, byproduct

пограничный ~ edge effect

подпороговый эффект subthreshold effect

пороговый ~ threshold effect

постоянный ~ permanent effect

резко выраженный ~ pronounced effect

снижение ~ effect diminishing; снижфть ~ diminish effect

эхолокация echolocation, echosounding
Я

явный distinct, apparent, evident, obvious

явственный distinct, clear

яйцо egg

скорлупа ~ eggshell

ярус layer, storey; long-line (рыболовное орудие)

~ погружённых растений submerged layer

кустарниковый ~ shrub layer

моховой ~ moss layer

нижний ~ леса substage of forest

травянистый ~ herb layer

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