А агонистическое поведение agonistic behaviour




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Each set of tracks was followed.


In tracking resident and transient lions literally handreds of mile.

Tracks indicated that three or possible four puma included Acurizal (название местности) in their travels although none were wholly resident there.

We deduced movement pattern from spoor

Tracks vary in appearance depending on the individuals size, its gait, slope steepness and type of substrate. Tracks made in snow are especially subject to variation, as melting rapidly distorts and enlarges prints.

Obviously factors such as habitat, elevation, and track size serve to separate leopard and tiger in places where they are said to occur in proximity.

Tracks indicated that male had passed within 50 m of the young and its kill (добыча) the same day of the capture.

The following day we tracked the large male and captured him some 3 miles distant.

A lion abruptly changed course, sometimes retracing its route for a considerable distance (invariably it was found that another lion or family of lions was in the area).



служить serve

In such a case, stones are brought by the female to serve for the levelling of the substrate surface.

This call serves as a location-signal that helps the parents to assess the general condition of the brood and enables them to locate their young readily after they have left the nest.

These mutual displays serve as a prelude to mating.



случаться happen, occur

It may happen that the neighbouring male or an unpaired male from the floating population is carefully watching all such events.. Such a bird will try to seize the opportunity to approach the female at a moment when she is ready to copulate.

Some males who happen to be late arriving in spring are forced to make do with the territories of worse quality, i.e. small and devoid of large vertical surfaces.

Breeding pairs of Northern Wheatear not infrequently occur close to human settlements.

Much more rarely, another form of polygyny occurs – so-called polyterritorial polygyny.

смена change, rotation

~ пола sex reversal

сменять change, ~ по очереди rotate см. превращаться

сменятьс take turns

These overlap zones are used by the neighbours in turn.



смертельный mortal, lethal, fatal

смертность mortality, mortality rate, rate of mortality, death rate, loss

~ дифференциальная differential mortality

~ зависящая от плотности density dependent mortality

птенцовая ~ nestling loss

ювенильная ~ juvenile mortality

снабжать supply (with), furnish (with), provide (with)

снабжение supply

~ питательными веществами nutruent supply

снасть gear, tackle

снег snow, осадки в виде ~ snowfall

The high-arctic region has a severe polar climate with minimal snowfall.

Only in some years the snowfall is much greater.

Due to small precipitation in winter and to the frequent storms, which cause the snow to drift, large areas of the northern polar regions are quite bare of snow in winter.

The general belief that the regions of the northernmost Arctic are perpetually covered by snow and ice is therefore far from the truth.

хрустящий ~ squeaky snow

снежный покров snow cover, snow mantle

событие event, occurrence

The occurrence of polyterritorial polygyny is described for a number of the wheatear species.



ход ~ course of events

совпадать coincide, match см. также соответствовать

совпадение concordance

солнечный solar, sunny

~ ванны (у птиц) sunning: с развёрнутыми крыльями spreadeagle sunning; лёжа на боку lateral sunning

~ ванны (у рептилй) basking

Lizards spend much of their time basking.



сообщество community, assemblage, association

Woody and forest-like vegetation only occurred on the fringes of perennial rivers, although improverished (угнетенный) and degraded forms were present along temporary watercourses, dongas and where outcrops (of dolerit dikes) brought groundwater (грунтовые воды) to the surface.

Large areas of hillslopes in the False Upper Caroo are also covered by associations of A, with dominant association of B on gentle slopes, and of C on the steeper hillsides. These are all quite open associations with abundant grass coverage, interpersed with dwarf shrubs, low trees and patches of shrubs, all representing a sclerophyllous evergreen savanna shrub.

In the western part these woods belong to the type A, whilst further eastward the type B dominate. These are not tall woods, and average height vary between 4 and 10 m. On the numerous steep (dolerite) hillsides found between points A and B, mainly two associations predominate.

This "forest reserve" is primarily grassland: montane from 1 300 to 1 800 m. with subalpine and alpine communities above 1 800 m.

соответствие accordance, conformity, compliance, correspondence, concordance

в ~ in accordance

In this species, males have a rather contrasting colour pattern while females look much duller, in accordance with the idea of protective type of coloration.



соответствовать correspond to, correspond with, conform to, agree with, comply with, match

These differences between the species named obviously correspond to a progressive lowering of the stimulus threshold-value from species to species.

The Black Wheatear roughly matches in size the Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush.

соотношение полов sex ratio

Despite a tendency towards females among juveniles, and males among yearlings and adults, sex ratios within each age class did not significantly deviate from unity, but at the population level there were significantly more adult males than reproductive females.



актуальное ~ actual sex ratio

вторичное ~ secondary sex ratio

дифференциальное ~ differential sex ratio

differential sex ratio between the members of each sex contemporaneously in an effective breeding condition



первичное ~ primary sex ratio

третичное ~ tertiary sex ratio

сопредельный adjacent

соприкасаться (напр., в отношении ареалов) abut

сопровождать accompany

сопровождающий accompanying см. сопутствующий

сопутствующий accompanying, concurrent, concomitant

~ обстоятельства concomitant circumstances

состав composition

видовой ~ species composition

возрастной ~ популяции age compositionб age-class composition

половой ~ популяции sex composition

составлять constitute, comprise, be composed of, be made up

These three forms a, which constitute the so-called Oenanthe picata complex, should probably be treated as megasubspecies.

In summer these insects constitute an important part of the birds diet

A considerable proportion of wheatear food is made up of ants, especially during the early spring, and in summer too these insects constitute an important part of the diet.

Individuals of this species feed mainly on rather large grasshoppers, which comprise up to 75% of all prey captured.

составной compound

состояние state, condition

изменять ~ render; активировать, активизировать render active

By rendering female coalitions ineffective, males contribute to a combination of factors that limit the benefits of female philopatry.



продвинутое ~ advanced state, advanced condition

состоять из consist of, be composed of см. также составлять

The karyotype in all wheatear species studied consists of 41 chromosome pairs.

The ground cover generally consists of poor, very low grassy vegetation, usually quite discontinuous, with many patches of bare stony, gravel or clay soil.

An important part of the species diet is composed of berries, especially during the autumn.



социабильность sociability

социальности градации socbiol gradations of sociality

истинная ~ eusociality см. община социальных наскомых

одиночный образ жизни solitary way of life

Living apart for all but a few hours per year. Activity fields of individuals are widely scattered and spatially isolated from one another.



псевдосоциальность quasisciality

парасоциальность paracociality

семисоциальность semisociality

социальный social

~ взаимодействия social interactions см. взаимодействие социальное, община социальных насекомых

~ взаимосвязи social relationships, social network

~ облегчение n social facilitation

~ опыт social experience

~ обучение social learning

~ ограничения social limitations

Social limitations are those placed on individuals (e.g. breeding opportunity) by the local social environment rather than by ecological factors per se.



~ организация social organization

~ притяжение social attraction

~ развитие social development см. онтогенетическая траектория

~ роли social roles

~ среда social environment

~ терпимость см. терпимость социальная

cоциализация socialization

спад m decline decrease, fall, drop; abatement (о жаре, воде); recession (о паводке), см. также упадок

спаривание см. половое поведение

спасаться бегством flee

специализация по питанию (у животных) feeding specialization

всеядные omnivorous animals

кровососущие sanguivorous (parasites)

насекомоядные insectivorous animals

травоядные (зеленояды) herbivorous animals, herbivore, phytophagous animals, phytovorous animals, weed-eaters, graminivorous animals, vegetarian animals

семеноядные seed-eaters, seed eating animals

фруктоядные frugivorous animals, carpophagous animals

carnivorous animals, predatory animals, predators, preying animals, sarcophagous animals, raptorial animals, beasts of prey, birds of prey



способствовать (содействовать) promote

спячка dormancy

зимняя ~ hibernation

искусственная зимняя ~ artificial hibernation

летняя ~ aestivation

среда environment, milieu, surroundings; medium

нетронутая ~ pristine environment

обеднённая improverished environment

социальная social environment

среднее mean, average

в ~ on average, at an average (of)

стадо

~ копытных herd

~ морских млекопитающих pod

~ обезьян band, troop

~ самцовое all male band, all male troop

замкнутое ~ closed herd

легко распадающееся ~ open herd, loose herd

нестойкое см. ~ легко распадающееся

холостяцкое ~ bachelor herd

стадо (домашних животных) stock

гурт drove

стайность flocking behaviour

стая

~ в полёте flock on the wing

~ птиц flock, covey

~ птиц смешанная mixed flock

~ рыб school, shoal

~ рыб, идущих на нерест run (редк.)

~ волков pack

степень degree, extent

Peripheral parts of neighbouring territories can overlap to some extent, and these overlap zones are used by the neighbours in turn.

The high frequency of male interventions in conflicts between females, and the extent to which males limit the effectiveness of female coalitions, are outstanding features of mountain gorilla society.

стигмергия stigmergy

стимул stimulus (мн. . stimuli), stimulant, cue

~ - реакция stimuls-reaction S-R см. стимулировать, вызывать реакцию

безусловный ~ unconditioned stimulus

внешний external stimulus, cue

вызванный ~ provoked

взаимного общения social stimulus

генерализация ~ generalization

знаковый ~ sign stimulus, releaser

индуцирующий ~ inductive stimuls

интенсивность ~ cue strength

мотивирующий ~ motivating stimuls, priming stimulus

пороговый ~ threshold stimulus, liminal stimulus

сверхнормальный supernormal stimulus

суммирование ~ heterogeneous summation

условный ~ conditioned stimulus

фильтрация ~ stimuli filtering, stimulus selection

стимулирование stimulation

внешнее external stumulation

внутреннее internal stimulation

стимулировать stimulate, excite; вызывать реакцию elicit reaction

страдать suffer

In northern Europe clutches and broods of the Northern Wheatear suffer greatly from fox predation.



стратегия кормодобывания foraging strategy

The feeding mechanism of each species are designated to enable it to feed in the most profitable manner, without undue waste of energy in handling the food, or ingesting food that is not worthwhile.



бюджет времени time budget

выбор решения foraging decision

групповое фуражирование group foraging

длина поискового маршрута travel distance

затраты энергии energy expenditure

The limit to expenditure, of energy or time, constraints upon animal behaviour.



информационный центр (при групповом фуражировании) information centre

истощение популяции жертв prey depletion

итоговая норма потребления корма фуражиром net rate of food intake

оптимальная ~ optimal foraging strategy

оптимальной ~ теория theory of optimal foraging strategy

The first step in developing of a theory of optimal foraging-decision rules is to choose a goal for optimal predator.



оптимальное решение optimal solution

оптимальный компроми ссoptimal compromise, optimal trade-off

оценка перспективности места поиска sampling

распределение времени поиска в пределах кормового участка allocation of foraging time between patches

рентабельность корма food profitability

поисковая ~ хищника searching sategy of predator

трактория поиска search path

фуражир-генералист generalist

фуражир-специалист specialist

фуражирование c возвратом к «дому» central place foraging

стратегия репродуктивная mating strategy, reproductive strategy см.также репродукция

альтернативная ~ alternative mating strategy

коньюнктурная (оппортунистическая) ~ opportunistic breeding strategy

Because of the habit of repeated breeding attempts, nests with eggs are found from late February to the end of June.



стратегия эволюционно-стабильная evolutionary stable strategy

стремление aspiration (for), striving (for), urge (towards), tendency

~ к стадности flocking tendency

стресс stress

общий адаптационный синдром general adaptation syndrome

структура structure, constitution, texture

~ внимания eth attention structure

~ популяции structure of population

возрастная ~ age structure

пространственная ~ space structure, three-dimensional structure

этологическая ethological structure

субарктический subarctic

For the lesotundra (forest-tundra) a widely used and very appropriate name is the subarctic zone.



суммация summation

~ стимулов stimulus summation, summation of stimuli

существовать exist, dwell

~ за счёт каких-либо ресурсов subsist on (something)

~ питаясь чем-либо ~ feed on (something)

на пределе существования ~ near the limit of existence
Т

таксон taxon; мн. taxa

вид (см.)

класс class

монотипический ~ monotypic taxon

монофилетический ~ monophyletic taxon

надвид superspecies

отряд order

парафилетический ~ paraphyletic taxon

под- (приставка к таксонам всех рангов) sub- (напр. subfamily)

подвид (см.)

политипический ~ polytypic taxon

полифилетический ~ polyphiletic taxon

род genus pl. genera

семейство family

сестринский ~ sister taxon

форма form

телодвижение movement, motion, bodily movement, gesture см. также демонстрации, локомоция

~ неуверенные faint, ill-directed movements

~ размеренные, неторопливые slow, deliberate motions

амплитуда ~ amplitude of movement

The amplitude of this movements varieswith intensity.



выразительное ~ expressive movement

зачаточное incipient movement

сигнальное ~ signal movement

элементарные ~ elementary motive acts, EMA

вращать (хвостом) rotate (swung) tail from side to side

When bird curious or excited, tail is frequently fanned and flicked up and down or swung from side to side through long curve—when tail moved to left, left half fanned while right half closed and vice versa when moved to right.



вилять (хвостом) wag

дёргать вбок (напр., головой) thrust outward

дёргать вверх thrust upward, jerk upward

дёргать вниз pull (sharply) down, вниз-вверх flip (rapidly) down and up

дёргать крыльями flick wings, wing-flicking

rapid flicking of the wings away from the body and back of it



кивать, кланяться bow, поклон bowing; nod, bob (у ящериц)

The curious nodding of the head which is only slightly modified from the ordinary bobbing of most iguanid lizards, is frequently a part of courtship.

Неуверенные Faint, il-directed

опускать (напр., голову, хвост) bent downward, lower

опускать крылья drop wings

отворачивать голову от партнёра turn head aside (head-flaging display)

отставлять , поднимать крылья extend wings

This behavior ranges from stationary half-extended wings, through flashing half-extended wings, to the wings being extended so far that their tips are in front of the birds beak and may touch the ground. While in the latter posi­tion, the predator bird may jerk its entire body toward the prey while keeping its feet stationary.



подрагивать, встряхиваться shakе, shuffle, twist

The long, stringy barbs, which extend outward from the sides of the bird, seem to be constantly in motion. They also serve to embellish (акцентировать) wing and body shuffling and shaking—actions that are rather frequent, as in the birds of paradise.



покачивать (напр., головой) bob, bobbing of head

In most intense expression, flight intention includes various bobbing and twisting movements of the body , which oriented in the horizontal plane, with tail being flipped rapidly down and up or rotated quickly from side to side in synchrony the wing flicks



приподнимать, lift, elevate, raise

поднимать крылья stretch wings upward

разворачивать (хвост) fan, sped; tail is fanned (spread)

трепетать крыльями quiver wings, flutter wings

хлопать крыльями flap wings

терпеть tolerate

The female will let the male come near, but tolerates his presence for only a few seconds, during which time he can perform only a fragment of his courtship-display.



терпимость социальная social tolerance

Social tolerance was exhibited by females and young during the period of juvenile dependency.

Schaller found resident tiger in India tolerant of transient, but speculated that some males might defend a territory against other males.

территориальное поведение territorial behaviour

Males establish their individual territories far apart, so that the territories of breeding pairs thereafter are widely scattered and spatially isolated from one another.



территориальность territoriality

запреты на пересечение границ территории чужаками territorial prohibitions

межвидовые различия в степени их interspecific differences in strength of territorial prohibitions: severe (жесткие); not rigid (нестрогие)

территориальный territorial

территория territory, territory area; cм. также иерархия социальная

The distinction between defended and home-range territory cannot always be maintained in practice,

Since our knowledge of the natural behaviour of animals under the varied natural conditions of their lives is often insufficient to enable us to say to what extent others are excluded from the territory.

The unqualified term “territory” is therefore useful for such cases, and it can readily be qualified as home-range or defended as our knowledge justifies.

Etkins remark appear apt to this discussion, and I have adopted his usage of the term territory.

No defence of a territory was noted in study and transient lions, both males and females, used these territories freely.

If a territory were actively defended against an intruder then the resident would have to apprroach the intruder to either frighten it or to forcefully drive it from the area.

Both males and females invariably visit these sites and ordinarily travel much the same route, whether hunting or seemingly just traveling.

Some permanent stations occur in each territory.

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