А агонистическое поведение agonistic behaviour




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котерия (луговых собачек) coteria

лидерство в ~ leadership

The dominant silverback in a gorilla group usually adopts a special stance before an integrated troop movement, and the other members then follow him.



матриархальная matriarchal group (with matrilineal relationshhips)

молодых особей juvenile group

многосамцовая multi-male group, multi-male troop

напряжённость отношений внутри ~ intra-group strife and tension

община социальных насекомых см.

односамцовая one-male group

основанная на равноправии особей (эгалитарная) egalitarian society

прайд (львов) pride

разросшаяся семья extended-family group

расщепление ~ group fission

родичей kin group

самцовая разновозрастная age-graded male troop

семейная close knit-group

слияние ~ groups fusion

сложность структурная ~ structural complexiti of the social group

стая см.

стадо см.

социальная ячейка society

структура ~ group structure

ток см

густой thick, dense; luxuriant, lush (растительность); soupy (туман)

~ лес dense forest

~ трава thick grass
Д

двигательный motive, motor, motorial

двигаться move, advance (вперед)

~ решительно advance determinedly

движение см. телодвижения

движения выразительные expressive movements

~ с помощью лицевых мышц facial expression

деградировать deteriorate

дезертирование desertion, abandontment

High percentage of nest failures were due to their abandonment by parents



дем deme

демография demography

демонстрация display, advertisement

The species-specific characteristics of using a particular form of displays are closely connected with the expressiveness of the signal behaviour of a species, which is in turn determined by the height of the thresholds for a particular actions execution.

The crest serves to exaggerate the visual effect of a pronounced rapid movement used in the ceremony of inter-male greeting, namely, the bobbing of the head.

~ воинственные combative display

~ вызова на дуэль challenge display

~ гениталий genital display

~ горлового мешка «раздувания» (у ящериц) dewlap extension

~ дрожания quiver display

~ оскала bared-teeth display

~ отвлекающая внимание хищника distraction display

~ паховой области inguinal display

~ приветствия greeting behaviour

~ самоутверждения assertion display, self-assurance display

~ угрозы threat display

~ умиротворяющие (мн.) ~ appeasement behaviour

~ флемования fleming

атрибуты ~ display paraphernalia

боковая ~ broadside display, side display, lateral display

брачные ~ courtship displays

вибрационные (у пауков) ~ vibratory courtship display

в полете ~ aerial display

вокальные (мн.) ~ vocal displays

воспроизводить (проделывать) perform, execute, employ

двигательные (мн.) ~ movement displays

запугивающая ~ intimidation display

механических звуков (мн.) ~ mechanical noise displays

отвлекающая внимание ~ distraction display

сложно-дифференцированая ~ elaborate display, extravagant display

социальные (мн.) ~ social display

статическая ~ static display

темп выполнения ~ cadence of display

The speed at which the units of dislay is performed in their sequence is the cadence of the dispay



тонкие детали ~ individual mannerisms

дерево tree; wood; arbor

The crown stratum formed by canopies of trees is generally very discontinuous , except in more dense forest-like stands mainly along rivers and wooded dongas.

In the case of single trees or small groups of isolated trees coverage was (цифровое значение)

~ на дереве (птица, гнездо) in tree

~ на опушке border tree

ветвящееся ~ branching tree

группы ~ trees occur in single groups

дуплистое ~ hollow tree

молодое ~ sapling

неветвящееся ~ tufted tree

низкорослое ~ bushy tree

отдельно растущее ~ single tree

плакучее ~ weeping tree

раскидистое ~ shaggy tree

суховершинное ~ stag-headed tree

сухостойное ~ dead standing tree

угнетённое ~ suppressed tree

флагообразное ~ flag-shaped tree

держать keep, hold; ~ собак keep dogs

Hawks and owls hold large prey with their feet, but shrikes, with their pas­serine feet, appear ill-equipped to do so.



дериват derivative, offshot

All the populations inhabiting the Arctic are off­shoots of southern peoples.



дефекация defecation

деятельность activity, performance

~ человека human activity

высшая нервная ~ higher nervous activity

нервно-психическая ~ neuro-psychic activity

рефлекторная ~ reflex activity

хозяйственная ~ agro-industrial activity

диморфизм dimorphism

обратный половой ~ reversed sex dimorphism

половой ~ sex dimorphism, sexual dimorphism;

сезонный ~ seasonal dimorphism

диморфный dimorphic, dimorphous

динамика dynamics

~ популяции population dynamics

~ численности dynamics of abundance, population dynamics

сезонная ~ seasonal dynamics

дискомфорт discomfort

дискретность discontinuity

~ растительного покрова discontinuity of vegetation

дистанция distance

~ бегства flight distance

индивидуальная ~ individual distance;

удерживать ~ maintain individual distance

дисфункция disfunction

дифференциальный differential

смертность ~ differential mortality

дичь game, wildlife; wild fowl

боровая ~ upland fowl

водоплавающая ~ waterfowl

крупная ~ big game

мелкая ~ small game

пернатая ~ fowl, wild fowl, game birds, feather game

длина length

~ дня day length

~ тела length of the body; всего тела total length (у рептилий) snout-vent value

длительность duration

длительный prolonged, lasting

добыча prey; kill, capture; take (in hunting); поджидать добычу lie in wait for the prey

~ на единицу промыслового усилия catch per unit effort

оставаться с ~ (кормясь на ней) stay with kill

Leopard stayed with a kill for 2-3 days.



доминирование dominance, domination cм.также иерархия социальная, ранг социальный

"Dominance" has in fact been measured in many different ways—in terms of some aspect of agonistic behaviour, in terms of priority of access to an incentive such as food or a mate, or in terms of the part played in some other type of interaction such as social grooming.



запаздывающее ~ delayed dominance

обратимое ~ shifting dominance

Dominance has the nature of an intervening variable.



ступенчатое ~ top dominance

достигать attain, reach

Under such circumstances the Finschs Wheatear shares its living space with the Isabelline Wheatear, although it never attains there numbers and density comparable with those of the latter species, which is an indigenous inhabitant of such arid plains.

The ontogeny of cricket killing in Loggerhead Shrikes requires about three days, at one encounter per day, to reach a stage of proficiency such that capture is almost im­mediate.

доступ (к ресурсам, половым партнерам) access to resource, access to sex partner

приоритет в ~ priority in access

доступность availability, accessibility

доступный available, accessible

драка fight, fighting

сцепиться в ~ come to grips
Ж

жертва prey, victim

непуганая ~ undisturbed prey animals

жест gesture

просящий ~ begging gesture

жестикулировать gesture, gesticulate

жестколистный sclerophyllous

Sclerophyllous scrub includes maquis and garrigue.



жизненный vital

форма ~ life form см. также образ жизни

жизнеобеспечение life support, life sustenance

жизнеспособность vitality, viability

жизнеспособный viable

жизнестойкий hardy, tough, enduring

жизнь life

внутриутробная ~ antenatal life

внеутробная ~ extrauterine life, postnatal life

продолжительность ~ life duration

ожидаемая продолжительность ~ life expectancy

жить live см. также существовать
З

забота care, caregiving behaviour

~ обоих родителей biparental care

~ о потомстве caregiving behaviour, parental care

материнская ~ maternal care

отцовская ~ male parental care, paternal care

родительская см. родительское поведение

заботиться take care

забрасывать cast, throw; см. покидать, пренебрегать

заброшенный abandoned

зависеть depend (on)

зависимость dependence

взаимная ~ interdependence

зависящий dependent

~ от плотности density dependent

задержать, задерживать hold (напр,. дыхание); см. отсрочивать, препятствовать

задержка delay, arrest; см. сдерживание

заключать в (вставлять, вделывать) embed, imbed

законодательство природоохранное wildlife legislation

правовой контроль legal control

статья закона the new wildlife act has come into force

заложить establish (напр., сад) см. также основывать, устанавливать

запасание hoarding, storing

кладовые cache, larders

место ~ storage location

~ корма, пищи food storing, food caching

запасы resources

возвращение к ~ retrieve stores

запах smell, odor, odour, scent

~ колони colony odour

запечатлевание imprinting см. также импринтинг

~ корма food imprinting

~ места locality imprinting

~ привязанности filial imprinting

~ стимула реакции следования filial imprinting

~ песни song imprinting

обонятельное ~ olfactory imprinting

половое ~ sexual imprinting

заселять populate, occupy, settle, pioneer

затраты expenditure

~ энергии expenditure of energy for

захват seizing см. хватать

~ добычи capture of prey

захват (обхват самки самцами амфибий) amplexus

защищать protect, defend, guard

звук sound см. биоакустика, сигнал звуковой

издавать ~ emit sound, utter sound, produce sound

темп ровторения ~

«зеркальце» (на птичьем крыле) speculum, spot

зимовать winter, overwinter

зимовка wintering, overwintering

в местах ~ on the wintering grounds, in the winter quarters

значение value; significance, meaning, sense

~ переменной variate value

приобретать ~ assume especial importance as (что-либо)

значимый significant

значительный considerable, substantial, sizable

During this circling, the bodys inclination relative to the ground changes from small to considerable and vice versa.

Mulberries Morus make up a considerable proportion of the diet from the end of May onwards.

зона zone, band, belt, range

~ вторичного контакта видов secondary contact zone

~ жизни zone of life

прибрежная ~ coastal zone

приливно-отливная ~ tidal zone, intertidal zone

снеговая ~ niveal zone

степная ~ steppe zone

таёжная ~ taiga zone

тропическая ~ tropical zone

тундровая ~ tundra zone

умеренная ~ temperate zone

умеренно тёплая ~ warm-temperate zone

умеренно холодная ~ cold-temperate zone

зональность zonality, zonation

~ растительности zonality of vegetation

зондирование probing

зрение sight, eyesight, vision

бинокулярное ~ binocular vision

двухцветное ~ dichromatic vision

дневное ~ daylight vision, day sight, day vision, photopic vision

монохромное ~ monochromatic vision

стереоскопическое ~ stereoscopic vision, solid vision

сумеречное ~ twilight vision, mesopic vision

трехцветное ~ trichromatic vision

цветовое ~ color vision, chromatic vision

И

игра play, play behaviour

идентичность identity

идентичный identical

идти go, walk; идёт дождь it is raining, it rains

идти по следу trail, spoor

иерархический hierarchic

иерархия инстинктов instinct hierarchy

иерархия социальная,

~ в социальной группировке (см.) social hierarchy см. также доминирование

Males showing preferences for the same females at high numbers, as well as all males at low numbers organized themselves into absolute social hierarchies that were independent of locality or time. In contrast, all owners organized themselves into relative social hierarchies depending on the locality where the agonistic encounters took place, the neighbourhood of the females as well as the females reproductive state.



аутсайдер outsider

деспотическая ~ despotic dominance hierarchy

доминант dominant individual, high-ranging individual, α-individual

доминантная пара особей dominant pair, α-breeding pair

доминирование social dominance

доминирование территориальное territorial dominance

линейная ~ linear hierarchy

подвижная ~ unstable hierarchy

подчинение submission, subordination

подчинённый subordinate individual

по праву третировать нижестоящих по рангу безнаказно uniderrectional peck-right

по праву третировать нижестоящих по рангу с веротностью ответных действий peck-dominance

«по праву сильнейшего из двух» straight-line peck-order

по принципу треугольника triangle relations, triangles

разветвлённая branching

собственная ~ в каждом поло-возрастном секторе группировки separate hierarchy for each sex-age class

с протекцией родичей nepotistic dominance hierarchy

Maternal rank inheritance by female cercopithecines with nepotistic dominance hierarchies



степень жесткости ~ extent of the social hierarchy rigidity

избегание avoidance, avoidance behaviour, avoidant behaviour; evasion

Striking examples of this avoidance behaviour, which I termed a “mutual avoidance reaction”, were recorded by tracking the animals.

Dispersal is primarily due to the avoidance of occupied or crowded (перенаселенный) ground by potential settlers.

Midway in the 1965-66 season, it became apparent that lions were avoiding close contact with one another.

In this system of parceling (подразделение) living space, avoidance play as important part as attack.

He had made no attempt to challenge the male transient apparently he purposely avoided contact once he became aware (стал осведомлен) of the young male presence.



~ хищника predator evasion

обусловленное см. условно-рефлекторное

условно-рефлекторное ~ conditioned avoidance

избегать avoid,

избежать см. ускользать

избирательность f selective ability, selectivity избирательный a elective, selective

избыток excess

избыточность redundancy

изменчивость variability, variation

~ признака variability of character

внутривидовая ~ intraspecific variation

внутрипопуляционная ~ intrapopulation variation

возрастная ~ age variation, age variability

географическая ~ geographic variation

групповая ~ group variation

дискретная ~ discrete variation

индивидуальная ~ individual variation

епрерывная ~ continuous variation, continuous variability

прерывистая ~ discontinuous variation, discontinuous variability

скрытая ~ cryptic variation, cryptic variability

случайная ~ chance variation

фенотипическая ~ phenotypic variation

экологическая ~ ecological variation

изменчивый variable

изменять change; modify; vary; ( частично) alter

~ состояние render; активировать, активизировать render active

изменяться vary, variate, change

изолят isolate

географический ~ geographic isolate

периферический ~ marginal isolate

изоляции репродуктивной механизмы isolating mechanisms

генетическая genetic isolation

посткопуляторная postmating isolation

прекопуляторная premating isolation

экологическая ecological isolation

этологичесая ethological isolation

изоляция isolation

географическая ~ geographic isolation

пространственная ~spatial isolation, isolation by distance

репродуктивная ~ reproductive isolation

икра пелагическая ~ pelagic eggs

иметь have; также служебный глагол

Having exchanged (русск. деепричастие прош. вр.:см. предисловие) their original forest habitats for open landscapes, the pioneer species proceeded to spread along two main routes. Some of the species have extended their ranges south from African tropical forests into open arid regions of South Africa.

Species of undoubtedly African origin has, by expanding along two different routes – through Iceland and Greenland in the west and across the Bering Strait in the east, penetrated into the New World.

This ancestral species had adapted to living in savannas and steppes, but nevertheless succeeded in colonizing new areas in North Africa, Arabia and the Middle East.

This colonization may have taken place (могла предположительно, иметь место) in the period when suitable habitats for the species became predominant in these regions.

These mutual displays have never been observed to lead to copulation in this species.



иметь дело (обращаться) с чем-нибудь deal

In all the cases discussed we are dealing with so-called allopatric forms whose breeding ranges are not contiguous, but rather situated well apart from each other.

Many non-raptorial birds deal with large food items by beating them vigorously prior to swallowing.

имитация imitation, copying

импринтинг eth imprinting см. также запечетлевание

~ на место рождения place of birth imprintation

пищевой ~ kind of food imprintation

половой ~ sexual imprinting

реакция следования following response

смена ~ imprinting reversal

формирование персональной привязанности development of attachment

формирование привязанности к родичам filial imprinting

чувствительный период ~ sensitive period for imprinting

импульс impulse, pulse

инадаптивный inadaptive, maladaptive

инактивность сезонная dormancy cм. спячка

инактивация inactivation

инбридинг inbreeding

избегание ~ inbreeding avoidance

оптимальный ~ optimal inbreeding (=optimal outbreeding)

потери репродуктивного потенциала как результат ~ inbreeding depression

инстинкт instinct

созревание ~ в онтогенезе maturation

инстинктивный instinctive

интерградация intergradation

вторичная secondary intergradation

первичная primary intergradation

интрогрессия introgression

интродукция introduction

интродуцировать v introduce см. также внедрять

инфантицид infanticide, kainism

испарение

The cold air can carry very little water vapor, even is the relative humidity is high, and the evaporation from the frozen sea is very slight.



испытывать test см. также проверять

исследование полевое survey

These least-known areas remained biologically untouched until our expedition.

All the nearest localities had been surveyed for bird life.

This task involves locating specific areas, or search sites within each survey block for placing and running sign transects.

Once a survey location is identified, delineate possible survey blocks in which sign transects can be located. This task is best accomplished by reviewing topographic maps, and noting the location of areas below 5,000 to 4,500 m in elevation.

I covered much territory on foot for many hours daily excursions.

Some 340 manhours of travelling were devoted to the grasslands and forest edge, and the remainder to various kinds of forest and along the edges of heavily wooded streams.

During the survey made (conducted) by author ...



рекогносцировка reconnoitering (by vehicle), reconnaissance

схема маршрута itinerary

исследовательский exploratory

исследовать research, explore, investigate, examine

источник source

~ изменчивости source of variation

итерация iteration


К

каменоломня quarry

камуфляж camouflage см. криптический

~ как хищническая стратегия ambush behaviour

выбор маскирующего субстрата matching background, crypsis

искажение контура тела contour disguise

неподвижность being motionless

расчленяющая окраска disruptive coloration

скрадывающая противотень counter-shading

кладка clutch, egg mass; см. откладка яиц

величина ~ clutch-size

яйцо в ~, откладываемое предпоследним penultimate egg

классифицировать classify, categorize

клюв bill, beak

крючковатый ~ hooked bill

мандибула upper beak, mandible

максилла lower beak, maxilla

когнитивные функции cognitive functions

замысел intention

концептуализация conceptualization

познавательные способности cogniton

проникновение в психику другой особи theory of mind (mental state of others attribution)

самоосознание self-awareness

когорта cohort

код code

кодекс code

Международный ~ зоологической номенклатуры International code of zoological numenclature

кодирование coding, encoding

количество quantity, amount

обильное ~ copious amounts



колония colony

~ гнездовая птиц ~ breeding colony

~ гнездовая птиц, смешанная mixed colony

~ грачей, пингвинов и морских птиц, гнездящихся на скалах rookery

~ многолетняя (напр., у летучих мышей) ~ perennial colony

~ плотно населё нная dense colony

~ разреженная loose colony

~ муравьев см. община социальных насекомых

периферия ~ periphery of colony

cубколония subcolony

наземных беличьих coterie, ward

тётушка (в яслях см.) aunt

центр ~ centre (center) of colony

эпицентр ~ epicentre of colony

ясли crêche

колония бактерий bacterial clump

колония простейших protozoan colony

кольцевание ringing, banding

~ птиц birdbanding

цветными кольцами color ringing

Most autumn recoveries (повторные находки) of birds ringed throughout Europe are from this area



коммуна commune, communal group см. также кооперативное размножение

группировка из нескольких моногамных пар (у птиц) unit composed of several monogamous pairs

Several unrelated adult pairs build a single communal nest and all females contribute eggs. Incubation and nestling care are shared by all members of the group.



группировка с одной моногамной α-парой dominance-based monogamous unit

дежурный при выводке (у млекопитающих) baby-sitter

общее гнездо (у птиц) communal nest

общее убежище (у млекопитающих) communal den

промискуитетная группировка (у птиц) promiscuous unit

сторож sentinel

коммуникативное поведение communication behaviour

агонистическое см.

брачное courtship behaviour, mating behaviour, rutting behaviour, consort behaviour

демонстрационное ~ display behaviour см. демонстрации

вербальное verbal behaviour

ритуализированное ritualized behaviour

коммуникация communication см. также сигнал, семиотика

~ при посредстве языков-посредников artificial communication

вербальная ~ verbal communication

избыточность в ~ redundancy

невербальная ~ nonverbal communication

процесс ~ communicative process

сигнал cм.

система видоспецифическая species-specific communication system

система ~ закрытая ~ closed communication system

система ~ иску сственная n см. ~ при посредстве языков-посредников

система ~ открытая open communication system

содержание сообщения message meaning

средства ~ means of communication

комплект (complete) set

комфортное поведение comfort behaviour, maintenance activity , body care activities

аллогруминг allogruming

аллопрининг allopreening

купание bathing

пылевых ванн принятие dusting

солнечных ванн (см.) принятие

потягивание stretching

почёсывание scratching

отряхивание shaking

зевание yawning

груминг grooming

прининг preening

компромисс compromise, trade-off

затрат-выигрыша ~ cost-benefit trade-off

The most obvious costs of singing are hunger and predation. Evidence for trade-off between energy demands and singing is quite good. There is also some circumstantial evidence that willow tit males face high predation costs while singing at dawn.



конечность limb

задняя ~ hindlimb

задняя нога hindleg

передняя ~ forelimb

передняя нога foreleg

конкурент competitor

конкурентный competitive

~ взаимоисключения принцип competitive exclusion principle

конкурентоспособность competitive ability

конкуренция competition

~ активностей behavioural final common path

~ за пищу competition for food

~ за полового партнера competition for sex partner, mate selection

~ за пространство competition for space см. рассредоточение особей, территория

~ спермы sperm competition

внутривидовая ~ intraspecific competition

интерференционная ~ intereference competition, encounter competition

межвидовая ~ interspecific competition

эксплуатационная ~ exploitation competition, consumptive competition, amensalism

консумматорное поведение см. фиксированная схема действий

контакт contact

назо-анальный ~ naso-anal contact

назо-назальный ~ naso-nasal contact

социальный ~ social contact

Migrating parties of the Eskimos maintain contact back as far west as the Bering Sea and south to Norton Sound, and even crossed the Bering Strait.



конфликт conflict

~ типа « избеганиеизбегание» eth avoidance-avoidance conflict

~ типа «приближениеизбегание» eth approach-avoidance conflict

~ типа «приближениеприближение» eth approach-approach conflict

~ родителей и потомства socbiol parent-offspring conflict

коооперация cooperation

Both spider species exhibit cooperative web construction, capture and utilization of prey, indiscriminate brood care, and colony permanence.



~ в работе sharing of work

кооперативное размножение m cooperative breeding см. также расселение

вакансия на статус производителя в группе breeding vacancy in group, opening for breeding positions

If the annual pro­duction of young in such a habitat is, on the average, higher than the annual mortality rate of breeders, then the best option for nonbreeding individuals would be to stay in the natal territory and wait for openings (e.g. by means of inher­iting the territory or part of it).

The few interflock movements were as­sociated with specific openings for breeding positions or were related to the disruption of a flock due to mortality of one or more key mem­bers

вакансия на статус производителя за пределами территории группы f at­tain breeding status (territorial vacancy) via dispersing

Given the low turnover of local ppulation of this species, juve­niles can be retained indefinitely in their parents territory, as the option to disperse and search for a territorial vacancy is unlikely to succeed. Thus, for juveniles, the ecological and demographic environment poses a quite restricted dispersal option.

Social limitation may be related to an individuals ability to form alliances to compete successfully with other groups for breeding positions

вид, практикующий кооперативное размножение m cooperative breeder

Florida Scrub Jays, which are habitat-restricted species , exhibit cooperative breeding.



единство группы group cohesion, group cohesiveness

кооперативно размножающаяся группировка f cooperative breeding unit, commune

местообитание насыщенное n saturated habitat

Habitat saturation occurs when all usable habitat in an area is filled with breed­ing pairs.



местообитание, ограниченное по площади n spatially restricted habitat

Temporally stable, but spatially restricted, habitat of high quality with extensive adjoining areas of mar­ginal habitat. Thus, there was a very low ratio of mar­ginal to optimal habitat.



наследование территории n inher­iting territory

неразмножающийся помощник m nonbreeding helper

нерасселение молодняка n dimin­ished dispersal, re­tention of young (offspring) in natal territory

Many authors suggest that a lack of marginally favorable breeding habitat limits the dispersal possibilities of maturing birds and is therefore important in favoring retention of offspring in the natal territory. However why birds in such environments do not become "floaters" within high quality territories has not yet been adequately examined. Second, the hypothesis does not address the almost universal observation that nondispersers actively assist in the rearing of nestlings, rather than leading relatively independent lives within their natal home range as is the case in many mammals.



низкий оборот состава группы m low turnover of individuals

низкий уровень эмиграции молодняка m restricted juvenile dispersal, dimin­ished dispersal

охрана групповой территории f group coop­eration in defending territory

пара особей-производителей f breedin pair, key mem­bers of the goup

противодействие иммиграции n group resistance against immigration

Nonbreeders may gain allies from within the natal ter­ritory to compete as a group against other non-breeders for territorial vacancies.



устойчивая связь членов ячейки с групповой территорией site fidelity

Most group territories were occupied continuously through­out the study.



копуляция copulation

внебрачная ~ extrapair copulation, cucoldry

корм feed, fodder, food, forage, feedstuff

~ ценность калорийная food conversion ratio

естественный ~ natural forage

злюбленный ~ favorite food

личиночный ~ larval food

подножный ~ pasture, grass, pasture forage

сухой ~ dry food

кормёжка feeding; на кормёжку to feed

кормить feed

кормиться feed

кормление feeding

принудительное ~ force feeding

кормность food capacity

кормовое поведение feeding behaviour

выбор кормовых объектов food selection

запасание см.

кормодобывание см.

объедание побегов, листьев browsing

отрыгивание погадок regurgitation

Wheatears regurgitate indigestible fragments of the swallowed food in the form of a compact pellet.



пастьба grazing

поедание добычи ingesting, eating

A wheatear eats large prey piecemeal; it will roll and drag the captured invertebrate for several minutes on the ground, tearing off one edible part after another. Large beetles, such as representatives of the Tenebrionidae up to 15 mm long, can be swallowed whole by bird after the prey has been dragged against the ground and mashed with the bill for some time.



поиски пищи searching for prey (cм. также поисковое поведение)

разделывание добычи handling of prey, prey handling

While handling very large prey the wheatear hammering it from above with sharp and violent stabs.



фиксация добычи см.

The shrike discovered that a mouse could be pulled into one of these slits and anchored there, so that small bits could be torn off and eaten.



фильтрация filtration

Many marine animals are filter feeders.



Кормовой fodder, forage, feeding, pabular; sterпn

кормовые ресурсы food resources, food supplay

кормодобывание forage, foraging, food obtaining activity

высматривание добычи на ходу dash-and-jab, pause-travel

While using this tactic, the wheatear runs a short distance on the ground after which it pauses briefly. Then it either runs a further short distance to attempt to capture prey spotted while pausing, or moves on to the next lookout.



зависание в воздухе hovering

If suitable perches are absent in the feeding area, the wheatear will try to spot insects from the air, hovering like a Common Kestrel or Kingfisher at a height of 2–3 m or more above the ground.



зондирование почвы excavation

To excavate of invertebrates from the ground the bird will dig at the substrate with downward-pointed bill, striking blows alternately from the left and from the right.



охота hunting, predatory behaviour

It is believed that a common wheatear is the only small song bird above the Arctic Circle, regularly hunting so large and dangerous an insect as a bumble-bee



охота в воздухе catching prey on the wing

Large moving insects spotted up to 30 m away, and caught in bill after shallow direct glide, sometimes with outstretched neck, which may terminate in brief hover before bird drops into vegetation; also drops straight onto prey below perch.

Flying insects taken in rapid, sometimes lengthy, pursuit flight which may start with vertical climb of c. 30 m, prey then deflected off course and seized in quick lunge (рывок) .

In deserts, this mode of hunting is most often used by wheatears in periods when termites swarm and these rather large insects abandon their nest en masse and fly in different directions with their weak and unsteady flight.



подкарауливание sit-and-wait strategy

Most prey located by bird from exposed, though usually low, perch using sit-and-wait strategy.

The wheatear looks for invertebrates while perched on a rock, large boulder, shrub or plant stem. When an insect is spotted crawling over the ground, the bird impetuously flies towards it, sometimes covering a distance of up to 10 m.

склёвывание с травы, веток и листьев ground sallying, foliage sallying

Ater watching for prey while sitting on the ground under a bush, the bird moves into its crown and clambers around there, picking up insects among the branches. In Arabia, these birds` usually employ this hunting tactic in periods of cold and windy weather.

охота в воздухе catching prey on the wing

Large moving insects spotted up to 30 m away, and caught in bill after shallow direct glide, sometimes with outstretched neck, which may terminate in brief hover before bird drops into vegetation; also drops straight onto prey below perch.

Flying insects taken in rapid, sometimes lengthy, pursuit flight which may start with vertical climb of c. 30 m, prey then deflected off course and seized in quick lunge (рывок) .

In deserts, this mode of hunting is most often used by wheatears in periods when termites swarm and these rather large insects abandon their nest en masse and fly in different directions with their weak and unsteady flight.



способы ~ foraging method, foraging mode, foraging tactics

стратегия кормодобывания см.

The feeding mechanism of each species are designated to enable it to feed in the most profitable manner, without undue waste of energy in handling the food, or ingesting food that is not worthwhile.



крайний extreme

~ юг extreme south

криптический cryptic

~ поведение cryptic behaviour

крона crown, krone

плакучая ~ drooping crown

кронирование pruning

крутизна slope, steepness

крутой steep; vigorously boiling

~ берег steep coast, abrupt coast, bluff coast, bold coast

куртина clump, bed, grove, copse, coppice

Vegetation very often forms a continuous mat of dwarf bush heat mixed with shrub and copses of willows and other bushes.



кусать bite, snap

укусить за (ногу) bite on (leg)



кусаться bite

куст bush, shrub

кустарник bush, shrub, shrubbery, frutex

clumps of bushes and scattered trees

woody shrubs

shrub along highways and round

Higher shrubs occured mainly in single groups standing amid open space

shrubs interpersed with impenetrable jungles

The stratum of low shrubs occured mainly in the marginal zones of patches of higher vegetation, but also in more open spaces as single bushes or as small patches. On cerrtain sites, however, it occured under the shelter of higher strata insside the bush, or forest-like vegetation.

гаррига garrigue

древовидный arbuscle

маккия maquis

cклерофильный ~ sclerophyllous scrub

кустарниковый frutescent, fruticose, shrubby

кустарничек dwarf shrub, low shrub, undershrub
Л

лазать climb, clamber

ландшафт landscape, range, terrains

consider the region from a general point of view

range comprise mainly flat to rolling terrains in valley bottoms except open pastures

wilderness (дикая местность) is extremely rugged (пересеченный, труднопроходимый) in its entirity(в целом); unpopulated expanses (пространства) of wilderness still exist beyond (its) boundary

diverse stony landscapes stretching from the foot of mountains to their alpine zones

Wild, rocky areas in semi-desert, slopes, ravines and wadis with scattered often thorny dry bushes, can approach agriculture.

Area desolate, stony stretches with scattered boulders and more seldom fallow fields (осыпи) at the border of small cultivated fields.

(the area) offer extraordinary conditions for living beings

The study was made in southern Spain, an area of deep canyones and ravines with eroded slopes, which cut into high plateaux (1000 m) covered by sparse vegetation and agrjcultural crops. Annual precipitation in area is very low (310 mm), and temperatures vary widely throughout the year, from freezing during the long winters to maxima above 40°C during the hot, dry summer.

bare fields, wastelands and wadis in open or lightly wooded arid country

Structure of habitat is made up by components which are locally available in both the biotic and abiotic environment.

антропогенный ~ anthropogenous landscape

городской ~ urban landscape

легкость (нетрудность) ease, easiness

Such biasing has no doubt occurred due to the ease with which bird sexual traits, such as colour, can be quantified for many species.



лёд ice

The coasts are ice-free for varying periods, which are always much longer than in the high-arctic region.

Protected bays and fiords is ice-covered even into the beginning of summer, but open coasts in many areas are ice-free during the entire winter.

From the enormous dome-shaped icecap of Greenland the ice forces its way to the coast, where it forms large glaciers.



ледник glacier; ice room

The Greenland icecap covers the whole interior of the country, leaving only a narrow fringe of ice-free land, at most about 185 miles wide, along the seacosts. The total area of the Greenland icecap is 728,000 square miles, and the greatest thickness, found west of Scoresby Sound, is about 6500 feet, resting on mountains more than 3,250 feet high.


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