А агонистическое поведение agonistic behaviour




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А

агонистическое поведение agonistic behaviour (вытеснение, драка, замещение, конфликт, нападение, погоня, преследование) см. взаимодействия социальные

агрегация агрегация, временная группировка, временное объединение, временное скопление aggregation, temporary aggregation, short-term association

~ в местах кормления feeding aggregation

ночёвочная ~ roosting aggregation

склонность образовывать ~ gregariousness

скопление особей gathering, schooling

агрессивность aggressiveness, aggressivity

агрессиивный aggressive

агрессия внутривидовая aggression, intraspecific aggression

материнская ~ maternal aggression

межсамцовая ~ intermale aggression

низкопороговая, импульсивная ~ irritable aggression

переадресованная ~ redirected aggression

порождаемая страхом ~ fear-induced aggression

связанная с полом ~ sex-related, sexual aggression

территориальная ~ territorial aggression

агроландшафт agrolandscape, agricultural land, farmland, farming

пашня arable

посевы crop

адаптивность adaptability

адаптивное значение adaptive significance, adaptive value

trait of adaptive significance, of adaptive value



адаптивный adaptive

адреналин adrenaline

айсберг

From the enormous dome-shaped icecap of Greenland the ice forces its way to the coast, where it forms large glaciers. These, in turn, give birth to the mighty icebers that float down the Greenland coasts. The production of glacier ice varies greatly: the fastest-moving glacier, the Upernavik Glacier, has a velocity of over one hundred feet a day in summer, while many others move only a few feet and some do not move at all.

The icebergs are carried to the south by the Labrador currents, but only about five per cent reach as far south as Newfoundland, and this voyage require several years.

акватория water area

акклиматизация acclimatization

акклиматизировать acclimatize

акклимация acclimation

активация activation

поведенческая ~ behavioural arousal

активизация activation

активизировать activate; arouse; render active

активность activity

рефлекторная ~ reflex activity

активность особи individual activity

~ вхолостую vacuum activity

двигательная ~ locomotor activity

замещающая ~ substitute activity

зона ~ activity field

переадресованная ~ redirection activity

проявление ~ manifestation of activity

проявлять ~ manifest activity

рефлекторная ~ reflex activity

смещённая ~ displacement activity

активный active

актуализма принцип actualism

акустика acou ~ stics

акустическая сигнализация acoustic signalization см. песня, сигнал звуковой

позывка call см. сигнала функция

акция action

выполнять ~ execute action, perform action

аллогруминг см. комфортное поведение

аллометрический allometric

аллометрия allometry

алломиметический allomimetic

~ поведение allomimetic behaviour

аллопатрический allopatric

аллопатрия allopatry

аллопрининг см. комфортное поведение

альпийский alpine

From the arctic zone a number of mountain ranges lead to the south, in America the Rockjes, in Europe the Scandinavian Mountains and the Urals, and in Siberia the Stanovoi Range. A large majority of the arctic plants and animals range to the south along these mountains on the upper parts of the slopes above the timber line in the so-called alpine zone.



альтруизм socbiol altruism

к родичам по преимуществу (непотизм) nepotism

реципрокный ~ reciprocal althriusm

эволюционный ~ evolutionary althruism

эффект «зелёной бороды» green-beard effect

альтруистический altruistic

альфа-разнообразие alpha-diveristy

амплитуда amplitude

~ движений movement amplitude

~ циклических колебаний cyclical amplitude

~ условий окружающей среды environmental range

~ экологических условий ecological range

суточная ~ daily range

экологическая ~ ecological amplitude, ecological range

анализ analysis

сонографический ~ sonographic analysis

анализатор analyzer

анализировать v analyse, dissect

аналитический analytic, analytical

аналог analog, analogue

аналогичный analogous

аналогия analogy

аналоговый analog

~ кодирование (сигнала) analog coding (of signal)

антагонизм antagonism

конкурентный ~ competitive antagonism

антагонист antagonist

антихищническое поведение anti-predator behaviour см. также камуфляж

анахоретизм anachoresis

имитация опасного животного deimatic display

аппарат m apparatus

голосовой ~ vocal apparatus

слуховой ~ hearing aid

аппаратура equipment

регистрирующая ~ recording equipment

аппетентный appetitive см. фиксированная схема действий

аппетенция appetence

аппетит appetite

аппроксимация approximation

последовательная ~ successive approximation

аппроксимировать approximate

ареал area, range, geographic range

высотный ~ altitudinal area

ленточный ~ belt area

нагульный ~ foraging area

разорванный ~ disconnected area, discontinuous area, discontinuous range

диффузный ~ diffuse area

реликтовый ~ relic area

современный ~ present-day range

соприкасающиеся ареалы adjacent areas, adjacent ranges

сплошной ~ continuous area, continuous range

узкий ~ restricted area

арктический arctic

The differences between north and south is so pronounced that it is necessary to distinguish between two zones in the arctic region, a northern high-arctic and southern low-arctic zone. The definition of the two zones is based on the distribution of animalas and plants, but this of course reflects climatic differences of considerable magnitude.



арктоальпийский arctoalpine, arctic-alpine

Such animals and plants are called arctic-alpine species. This alpine zone in many ways bears a close resem­blance to the arctic region, but it differs in several ways, including light conditions (no midnight sun) and lower barometric pressure, so that it is generally not incorporated in the arctic region. Treeless alpine zones exist also in the isolated high mountains farther south, as in the Alps and the Pyrenees, and they also are inhabited by some arctic-alpine species.



аромат scent (цветов), aroma, flavour, fragrance

артефакт artefact, artifact

атавизм atavism

атавистический atavistic, ancestral

атака attack

Male bounces up in violent attack.



короткая ~ pounce, pouncing

ложная ~ sham attack

~ с нападением ~ overt attack, outrigt attack, furious attack

attack followed by aggressive body contact with strange individual

The territory holder quickly moved towards the intruder, and butted (ударять) him with his head.

атаковать attack

аутсайдер см. иерархия социальная

аутэкологический autecological

аутэкология autecology

афагия aphagia

аффилиация (объединение в союз) affiliation

There was report of a case of a male Japanese macaque who formed affiliative relationships with three young monkeys apparently quite unrelated to him.



аффилиативный союз team, affiliative relationships (against others), affiliative ties

Each team consisted of an older and a younger male, one or both of which have females accompany­ing them.



временный альянс temporary alliance

объединяться в союз interact affiliatively, develop alliance

поддерживать союз maintain alliance

Б

бег running

~ прыжками saltation

~ плавный, скользящий ~ gliging run

рикошетирующий ~ ricochet

беать run

~ иноходью amble

~ рысью trot

бегающий cursorial

бегство escape, escape behaviour

безжизненный lifeless, barren; azoic

The Greenland icecap and that of antarctic continent form the worlds only absolute lifeless desert.



безлесность treelessness

безлесный treeless

безлистный leafless, aphyllous

берегm shore, bank, strand, shoreline; открытые берега всех побережий exposed shores of all coasts; на берегу реки on the riveside

~ моря seacoast, seashore см. также побережье

абразионный ~ abrasion shore, wave cut shore

крутой ~ steep shore, bold shore

обвалованный ~ leveed bank

отлогий ~ low coast, flat shore

подмываемый ~ caving bank

береговой coastal, riparian

берлога den, lair, couch, squat

беседки (птиц-шалашников) bowers

индивидуальная площадка самца на току display platform, bower

декорирование ~ bower decoration

бескормица fodder shortage, food shortage

бесплодие (особи) sterility, infertility

бесплодность (местности) barrenness

бесплодный infertile, sterile; см. безжизненный

бесполезный useless

беспокоить vex

беспокойство anxiety, agitation, restlessness, uneasiness, unrest

~ из-за разъединения с партнером separation distress

бигамия bigamy

бинарный binary, binomial

~ номенклатура binary nomenclature

бинокулярный binocular

биоакустика bioacoustics

гармоническая структура звука harmonic structure of sound

длительность звука duration of sound

доминантная частота dominant frequency

значение частоты frequency band

нарастание частоты rising in frequency

несущая частота carrier frequency

огибающая envelope curve; колоколообразная ~ dome-shaped envelope curve

основной концентрации энергии зона main concentration of energy

падение частоты falling in frequency

полоса частот range of frequencies

последовательность посылок разной акустической структуры heterotypic sounds sequence

серия одинаковых посылок homotypic sounds series

сонограмма sonogram

тональный звук tonal sound

частотно-временная организация сигнала signals frequency-time pattern

шумовой звук noise-type sound

биология biology

~ социобиология sociobiology

биоразнообразие biodiversity

forest supports a rich range of species; with a total n breeding species

very much richer fauna

species diversity varies greatly from space to space, with a total n breeding species



биотоп biotope, community habitat

маргинальный ~ marginal habitat

биоценоз biocenose, biocenosis, biocoenosis, community, biocommunity

бихевиоризм behaviourism

бихевиористский behaviouristic

бициклический bicyclic

благополучие welfare, well-being

психологическое ~ psycholgial welfare

физиологическое ~ physiological welfare

благоприятный favorable

болото marsh (постоянное, проточное), fen (затапливаемые берега рек и озер), bog (постоянное, слабопроточное, чаще верховое), mire, marshland, swampmoor, swampland, waterlogged area

Where the ground is moist extensive bogs exist.



верховое ~ high bog, raised bog, valley bog, basin bog, raised moss, raised moor, upland bog, upland, swamp, mire

Bog (mire) is permanently waterlogged habitats, often anaerobic and acid, with little flow of water; typically blanket bog is in uplands, but raised bog generally in lowlands; both produce peat, and require high rainfall. Bogs in areas of high water table include valley bog (through-drainage) or basin bogs (largely stagnant).



грядово-мочажинное ~ hummock-ridge bog

долинное ~ valley bog, valley mire

камышовое ~ bulrush fen

Fen (mire) is regarded as sub-category of marsh. It is waterlogged habitat found on shallow margins of lakes and slow rivers, and on alluvial flood plains with impeded drainage. Rich fen is base- and species-rich. Seasonal fen displays wide cyclical variation in the extent of waterlogging.



кочковатое ~ hillock bog, tussock bog

кустарниковое ~ shrub bog

кустарничковое ~ subshrub bog, dwarf shrub bog

лесное ~ wooded bog, forest bog, wood swamp

мангровое ~ mangrove swamp

моховое ~ mossery, moss, moss bog, moss fen, moss moor

низинное ~ lowland moor, lowland swamp, fen, flood-plain marsh, lowland bog

пойменное ~ valley bog, river marsh

пресноводное ~ freshwater marsh

Freshwater marsh is permanently waterlogged habitats, usually well-oxygenated and with steady through-flow of water. Tends towards reedbed, reed-swamp.



пушицевое ~ cotton grass swamp, cotton grass bog

соленое ~ salt marsh, salt-water marsh

Saltmarsh is tidally inundated and cleansed with brackish water.



солончаковое ~ salt swamp, salt marsh

сфагновое ~ peat moss bog, sphagnum bog

торфяное ~ peat bog, peat swamp

тростниковое ~ reed swamp

борьба fighting, struggle, wrestle, contest; control

~ за существование struggle for existence

~ шеями eth neck-fighting, necking, neck-wrestling

конкурентная ~ competitive fighting

брачный breeding, nuptial

брешь (промежуток, интервал) gap

пробел в знаниях gaps in knowledge

бросаться fly at (о собаке), attack, strike

бросок dart, darting burst

брыкаться buck, kick, fling

бугристый hilly, hillocky, hummocky; bumpy, knobby, torose, grumous,

tuberous



буран snow storm

«бутылочного горлышка» феномен bottleneck phenomenon



бухта bight

быстрина riffle, rapid, cataract, swift course

быстрый agile, quick, rapid, fast, swift

бюджет budget

~ активностей behavioural resilience

~ времени time budget
В

валентность valence

экологическая ~ ecological valence

As the more southern plants and animals decrease in number and disappeared, they are replaced by other hardier species, which is adapted to the extreme conditions of the areas next to the Pole and which are missing rather south in the Arctic.



варьировать vary, range

The wing-length of birds from the Tien Shan and Mongolia ranges from 99.8 to 103.1 mm, compared with a mean of 96.3 mm in Iran and Afghanistan.

In Turkmenistan, the size of territories ranges from 0.7 to 4.2 ha, though these figures are approximate since the adjacent territories broadly overlap (by up to 20–50 m) in their peripheral parts and have in fact no definite borders.

величина value, magnitude см. размер

значение ~ value, figure

порядок величины orders of magnitude

Average ME of prey taxa differed by three orders of magnitude from the highest ME, Mus musculus, to the lowest ME, ants.



предельная ~ limit value

приближённая ~ rough value

случайная ~ variate

теоретически рассчитанная ~ theoretical value

эффективная ~ популяции effective population size

вереск heather (Calluna)

The Breckland is an area of dry: sandy soils, largely devoted to forestry and arable (пахотный) farming. Until the early part of the century, however, large tracts of heathland (заросли вереска) occupied the area, and fragmented heaths remain today.



вероятность probability

апостериорная ~ posterior probability

априорная ~ prior probability

доверительная ~ acceptance probability, confidence probability

условная ~ conditional probability

верховье (реки) upper reaches, river head, headwaters, upper course

ветер wind

in places that particularly exposed to the wind



переменный ~ variable wind

порывистый ~ gusty wind

северный ~ northerly wind

сильный ~ strong wind

слабый ~ light wind

ветровал windbreak, windfall

ветроустойчивый wind-resisting, wind-firm

вечнозелёный evergreen, sempervirent, aiphyllous, indeciduous

взаимность (обоюдность) reciprocity, mutuality

Females supported each other reciprocally, as reported for rhesus and stumptailed macaques. Females supported others with whom they also often interacted affiliatively.



взаимодействие социальное interaction, cooperation

быть вовлечённым во ~ be engaged

взаимная ориентация партнёров

When male directes his display toward an intruder at close range, he orients his broadside (laterall presentation) toward an adversary. The intruder also orient in this fashion, usually heading in the opposite direction. This configuration of two laterally presented males is termed face-off and is typical of most iguaid challenge displays in close proximity.



взаимная чистка покровов mutual grooming (allogruming), mutual preening (allopreening)

вытеснение, изгнание eviction

драка fight, (fierce, violent) combat

замещение supplanting attack

конфликт conflict, confrontation, dispute

The key features of this activity were the partially opened, drooped wings, the violent chasing and fleeing, and the actual physical contact as the combatants struck one another from time to time.



кормление партнёра feeding, ritual feeding; trofallaxis (у социальных насекомых)

кормление совместное food sharing, co-feeding

копуляция copulation

Each act of copulation is usually preceded by a very prolonged mutual adjustment of each partners behaviour in respect of the others.



матери и детёныша mother-infant interaction

нападение attack (upon), assault

погоня chase

пребывание поблизости друг от друга (staying) in proximity to

преследование pursuit

садка (самца на самку) mounting

скучивание clumping (у птиц), huddling (у млекопитающих), huddling behaviour. crowding

столкновение encounter

удерживать самку перед копуляцией (у ящериц) get hold, get bite-hold

Male rapidly approaches female and immediately attempts to get a mating hold on her neck. There is an impression that that successin mating depends upon males ability to catch the female.



ухаживание courtship

уход от ~ withdrawal, contact withdrawal

взаимодействие факторов interaction of factors

взаимодействовать interact

взаимоисключение mutual exclusion

конкурентное ~ competitive exclusion

взаимоотношения interactions, interrelations, interrelationships

внутривидовые ~ intraspecific interactions

конкурентные ~ competitive interaction

межвидовые ~ interspecific interactions
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