From the enormous dome-shaped icecap of Greenland the ice forces its way to the coast, where it forms large glaciers. These, in turn, give birth to the mighty icebers that float down the Greenland coasts. The production of glacier ice varies greatly: the fastest-moving glacier, the Upernavik Glacier, has a velocity of over one hundred feet a day in summer, while many others move only a few feet and some do not move at all.
The icebergs are carried to the south by the Labrador currents, but only about five per cent reach as far south as Newfoundland, and this voyage require several years.
акватория water area
поведенческая~ behavioural arousal
активизировать activate; arouse; render active
рефлекторная~ reflex activity
активностьособи individual activity
~вхолостую vacuum activity
двигательная ~ locomotor activity
замещающая~ substitute activity
зона~ activity field
переадресованная~ redirection activity
проявление ~ manifestation of activity
проявлять ~ manifest activity
рефлекторная~ reflex activity
смещённая~ displacement activity
акустика acou ~ stics
акустическаясигнализация acoustic signalization см. песня, сигналзвуковой
позывка call см. сигналафункция
выполнять~ execute action, perform action
~ поведение allomimetic behaviour
аллопрининг см. комфортное поведение
From the arctic zone a number of mountain ranges lead to the south, in America the Rockjes, in Europe the Scandinavian Mountains and the Urals, and in Siberia the Stanovoi Range. A large majority of the arctic plants and animals range to the south along these mountains on the upper parts of the slopes above the timber line in the so-called alpine zone.
The differences between north and south is so pronounced that it is necessary to distinguish between two zones in the arctic region, a northern high-arctic and southern low-arctic zone. The definition of the two zones is based on the distribution of animalas and plants, but this of course reflects climatic differences of considerable magnitude.
арктоальпийский arctoalpine, arctic-alpine
Such animals and plants are called arctic-alpine species. This alpine zone in many ways bears a close resemblance to the arctic region, but it differs in several ways, including light conditions (no midnight sun) and lower barometric pressure, so that it is generally not incorporated in the arctic region. Treeless alpine zones exist also in the isolated high mountains farther south, as in the Alps and the Pyrenees, and they also are inhabited by some arctic-alpine species.
болото marsh (постоянное, проточное), fen (затапливаемые берега рек и озер), bog (постоянное, слабопроточное, чаще верховое), mire, marshland, swampmoor, swampland, waterlogged area
Where the ground is moist extensive bogs exist.
верховое ~ high bog, raised bog, valley bog, basin bog, raised moss, raised moor, upland bog, upland, swamp, mire
Bog (mire) is permanently waterlogged habitats, often anaerobic and acid, with little flow of water; typically blanket bog is in uplands, but raised bog generally in lowlands; both produce peat, and require high rainfall. Bogs in areas of high water table include valley bog (through-drainage) or basin bogs (largely stagnant).
грядово-мочажинное~ hummock-ridge bog
долинное~ valley bog, valley mire
камышовое~ bulrush fen
Fen (mire) is regarded as sub-category of marsh. It is waterlogged habitat found on shallow margins of lakes and slow rivers, and on alluvial flood plains with impeded drainage. Rich fen is base- and species-rich. Seasonal fen displays wide cyclical variation in the extent of waterlogging.
As the more southern plants and animals decrease in number and disappeared, they are replaced by other hardier species, which is adapted to the extreme conditions of the areas next to the Pole and which aremissing rather south in the Arctic.
варьировать vary, range
The wing-length of birds from the Tien Shan and Mongolia ranges from 99.8 to 103.1 mm, compared with a mean of 96.3 mm in Iran and Afghanistan.
In Turkmenistan, the size of territories ranges from 0.7 to 4.2 ha, though these figures are approximate since the adjacent territories broadly overlap (by up to 20–50 m) in their peripheral parts and have in fact no definite borders.
величина value, magnitude см. размер
значение~ value, figure
порядоквеличины orders of magnitude
Average ME of prey taxa differed by three orders of magnitude from the highest ME, Mus musculus, to the lowest ME, ants.
The Breckland is an area of dry: sandy soils, largely devoted to forestry and arable (пахотный) farming. Until the early part of the century, however, large tracts of heathland (заросли вереска) occupied the area, and fragmented heaths remain today.
апостериорная~ posterior probability
априорная~ prior probability
доверительная~ acceptance probability, confidence probability
условная~ conditional probability
верховье (реки) upper reaches, river head, headwaters, upper course
Females supported each other reciprocally, as reported for rhesus and stumptailed macaques. Females supported others with whom they also often interacted affiliatively.
бытьвовлечённымво ~ be engaged
взаимная ориентация партнёров
When male directes his display toward an intruder at close range, he orients his broadside (laterall presentation) toward an adversary. The intruder also orient in this fashion, usually heading in the opposite direction. This configuration of two laterally presented males is termed face-off and is typical of most iguaid challenge displays in close proximity.